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University at Buffalo
Undergraduate College
UGC 112
Claude Welsh

Review Sheet: Final Exam Key Terms and Concepts: World War I-1914-1918 World War II-1939-1945 Causes of WWI and WWII WWI is also called the “Great War”, “The war to end all wars”, “Second 30’s year war”. Causes of WWI -Two side of the war: Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary),Allied Powers (Britain, France, Russia) -Underlying Causes-Territorial disputes (remaining in Europe and out of it -Germany was rapidly rising power -War was short and winnable-country that launched war would profit from it -Alliance systems-attack on one, meant attack on all -Growing sense of Nationalism -Immediate reasons (spark)-July 1914- prince ofAustria-Hungary Causes of WWII -Trying to seek revenue from Germany because of the damages of the World War I -Adolf Hitler -Japan wanted to expand (They were already attacking eastAsia) -Two sides of the war:Axis Powers (Germany, Japan, and Italy),Allied Powers (France, Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States) Severity of WWI and WWII in terms of causalities WWI -Britain and France-600,000, -Germany-500,000 -70 million men worldwide fought the war Two major warring forces during WWI and WWII World War I-Centrals Powers (TripleAlliance)- Germany,Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, and Kingdom of Bulgaria, and Japan -Allied Powers (Triple Entente)- France, Britain, and Russia Empire, Italy World War II-Axis Powers-Germany, Italy, Japan -Allied Powers-Britain, France, Russia (Soviet Union), United States Consequences of WWI and WWII WWI-Treaty of Versailles- June 28,1919 -It ended the war between Germany and theAllied Powers -Germany had very limited forces-couldn’t have more than 100,000 troops -Many military restrictions -Had to lose all of the land that they had gained WWII-Leading of the Cold War In What Ways Was World War II a Global Conflict? It effected everyone Took place mainly in Europe Japan attacked theAsian countries Us joins after the bombing of Pearl Harbor Woodrow Wilson and Fourteen Points Woodrow Wilson wanted to bring peace among every one. He suggested the “League of Nations” IN THE fourteen points. Free trade, open agreements, democracy and self- determination. Suggested the formation of the League of Nations. Independence of Poland and reduce the military forces/weapons How did different political systems use mass culture? Political systems used mass culture such as radio and television to try to gain support The Great Depression Severe worldwide economic depression in the decade receding the world war II. Started in the 1930s The “Great War” World War I Authoritarianism Social Organization characterized by submission to authority as well as the administration of said ability Right-wing dictatorships: Italian fascism, German Nazism, and the Soviet Union, militarist Japan Italian fascism-Peasants and workers were uneasy and were scared of what would happen to the economic state that they were in. Mussolini came into focus and gained power in 1922. He demanded territorial expansion and greater rights for women, workers, and peasants. He used modern media to gain support. German Nazism-Hitler came into power peacefully and legally. He formed a movement that was like Mussolini. His movement blended both socialists and nationalists. Soviet Union-Stalin Militarist Japan- They were ruled in an authoritarian state Hitler- Dictator Mussolini Italian fascists. Seized power in 1922 Anti-Semitism Prejudice, hatred, or discrimination against jews for reasons connected to their Jewish heritage. Mustafa KemalAtaturk and his major role in reforming Turkey Reforms in Turkey Atatürk's reforms were a series of political, legal, cultural, social and economic policy changes that were designed to convert the new Republic of Turkey into a secular, modern and a nation- state. These reforms were implemented under the leadership of Mustafa KemalAtatürk in accordance with Kemalist ideology (ideology of Mustafa KemalAtatürk. Republicanism, nationalism, populism, secularism, statism and revolutionism.) Central to these reforms were the belief that Turkish society would have to westernize itself both politically and culturally in order to modernize.Atatürk's political reforms involved a number of fundamental institutional changes that would see the end of many traditions, and a carefully planned program of political change was implemented to unravel the complex system that had developed over the centuries. Treaty of Versailles Signed exactly five years after the death ofArchduke Franz Ferdinand. Five major victors (France, United Kingdom, United States, Italy and Japan) “Council of Ten eventually became the “Big Five.” France was the only allied power sharing borders with Germany and wanted to weaken them as much as possible. Wanted payments of reparations Yalta Conference World War II meetings of the heads of government of the United States, United Kingdom, and Soviet Union, it include president Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime minister Winston Churchill, and General Secretary Joseph Stalin where they discussed the Post-War reorganization Marshall Plan It was theAmerican Program to aid Europe. United States gave economic support to help rebuild European economics after the end of the World War II in order to prevent the spread of soviet communism. It was to rebuild a war-devastated region, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, and make Europe prosperous again. Proxy wars It is a war that results when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly. Buffer states Abuffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers, which by its existence is thought to prevent conflict between them. Buffer states, when authentically independent, typically pursue a neutralist foreign policy, which distinguishes them from satellite states. Sun Yat-sen in China He was a chinese revolutionary, first president and founding father of the Republic of China ("Nationalist China"). As the foremost pioneer of Republic of China, Sun is referred to as the "Father of the Nation" in the Republic of China (ROC), and the "forerunner of democratic revolution" in the People's Republic of China. Sun played an instrumental role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty during the Double Ten Revolution. He allowed Chinese communists to join the Guomindang. The Guomindang also began to organize workers’union, peasants, and women’s associations. Chinese revolution After the war the communist party vowed to achieve full political and economic independence for China. The communist part had gained momentum over two decades. Mao Zedong Took over the leadership of the party. In 1934, under attack from the Nationalists, they embarked on a 6,000 mile “Long March” to the northwest of the country to escape further attacks. Under Mao, the party reached out to the vast rural populations to fight the Japanese. Mao’s emphasis on a peasant revolution helped him win broad support in China and served as a model for other Third World revolutionaries after 1945. Mao also emphasized women’s liberation. Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution Mao Zedong’s plan to modernize China. Time when people stopped working in farms and worked for factories. Complete Failure. Mao Zedong lost respect. Mao Zedong came up with the cultural revolution where he tried to enforce communism completely take away capitalism, traditional, and cultural elements from China. Revolution made China worse economically and socially. Fall of Berlin wall East Germany was for Germany and West Berlin was the fascist ideas. It was to separate the two parts of Germany by land. Tiananmen Square Students were protesting against China. Students were protesting against Communism. They wanted democracy or nationalism. Rise of nationalism Chinese nationalism The nationalism asserts that the Chinese are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of the Chinese. Postimperial Turkey Role of religion in state-building and war Mohandas Ghandi Indian nationalism. Non-violence, civil rights, and freedom across the world Salt Movement Indian Independence Movement. Tax resistance and also nonviolent protest against Britian salt monopoly in colonial india. Indian National Congress One of the two major political parties in India . Government if IndiaAct 1935 India’s independence On 3 June 1947, Viscount Louis Mountbatten, the last British Governor-General of India, announced the partitioning of British India into India and Pakistan. With the speedy passage through the British Parliament of the Indian IndependenceAct 1947, at 11:57 on 14August 1947 Pakistan was declared a separate nation, and at 12:02, just after midnight, on 15August 1947, India also became an independent nation. (dunno about this) The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 October revolution. It was a seizure of state power instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd traditionally dated to 25 October 1917. Communism Cold War (tensions between superpowers) Russia and U.S. as superpowers (super powerful countries, results to cold war, nuclear weapons, tensions.) Impact of Cold War (caused the Korean War and other wars… I think.) Five Year Plan The Five-Year Plans for the National Economy of the Soviet Union (USSR) were a series of nation-wide centralized economic plans in the Soviet Union. The plans were developed by a state planning committee based on the Theory of Productive Forces that was part of the general guidelines of the Communist Party for economic development. Fulfilling the plan became the watchword of Soviet bureaucracy. (See Overview of the Soviet economic planning process) The same method of planning was also adopted by most other communist states, including the People's Republic of China. Consequences of Cold War (something about nuclear weapons and limiting them or something) Stalingrad The Battle of Stalingrad was a major and decisive battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in the southwestern Soviet Union. The battle took place betweenAugust 23, 1942 and February 2, 1943and was marked by constant close-quarters combat and lack of regard for military and civilian casualties. Prague Spring: a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II. Soviet Union: discuss issues/role of propaganda, repression, economic growth, leadership, and overreach evident in the country and impact on other states Soviet invasion of Afghanistan Invasion of Afghanistan in late December 1979 by troops from the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union intervened in support of theAfghan communist government in its conflict with anticommunist Muslim guerrillas during the Afghan War (1978–92) and remained in Afghanistan until mid-February 1989. Soviet development of nuclear weapons and the arms race The nuclear arms race was a competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States, the Soviet Union, and their respective allies during the Cold War. During the Cold War, in addition to theAmerican and Soviet nuclear stockpiles, other countries developed nuclear weapons, though none engaged in warhead production on nearly the same scale as the two superpowers. (during WW2)When President Truman informed Stalin of the weapons, he was surprised at how calmly Stalin reacted to the news and thought that Stalin had not understood what he had been told. Other members of the United States and British delegations who closely observed the exchange formed the same conclusion. In fact Stalin had long been aware of the program, despite the Manhattan Project having a secret classification so high that, even as Vice President, Truman did not know about it or the development of the weapons (Truman was not informed until shortly after he became president) Aring of spies operating within the Manhattan Project, (including Klaus Fuchs and Theodore Hall) had kept Stalin well informed ofAmerican progress. They provided the Soviets with detailed designs of the implosion bomb and the hydrogen bomb. Fuchs’arrest in 1950 led to the arrests of many other Russian spies, including Harry Gold, David Greenglass, and Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. Cuban Revolution and Cuban Missile Crisis The Cuban Revolution was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement and its allies against the regime of Cuban dictator Fulgencio
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