[CHEM 1002] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 16 pages long Study Guide!

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CHEM 1002
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Final Exam SG
Potassium used in our food (K40)
Radon-222
Radioactive gas produced from the decay of radium
Largest contributor to background radiation
Naturally occurring
Found in large quantities near uranium mining facilities
Chernobyl
Sr-90 dangerous because concentrates in bones
Depleted Uranium
Mostly, but not all U-238
High density
Used in warheads
Very little U235
Less U235 = less radioactivity
Weapons grade U
90% U-235
Graphene
super-capacitor
made of carbon atoms
Phytoremediation
use of deep tap root plants to absorb radioactive materials from water
supplies
Trans-Uranic Waste
classification for alpha emitting material with an atomic number > U
all but Uranium allowed
half life > 20 years
> 100 nCi/g (n = 10^-9)
from weapons production, power, research
mainly Plutonium
may or may not be more radioactive than HLW
Specific Heat Capacity
higher =
higher thermal mass
lower insulation properties
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Inefficiency of a power plant is due to increases in entropy
Exothermic
heat is released as reaction happens
Heat
energy that flows from a warmer body to a cooler body
Petroleum Refinery
separates crude oil into factions with similar boiling points
catalysts play important role in cracking and reforming processes
Distillation
process in which a solution is heated to its boiling point then vapors are
condensed and collected
Insulation
thermal mass vs. specific heat capacity
Largest background radiation = X
Gaseous Diffusion
gasses with different molecular weights forced through filters
Gas Centrifuges
in spinning cylinder, heavier collect on the outside
less E required than diffusion
Reprocessing
separate and recover Pu from spent fuel
Pu recycled in MOX nuclear fuel
MOX (Mixed Oside Fuel Pu mixed with U)
Cecycled Pu = 12-20% increase in E from fuel
Require more control robs
Fast reactors (high speed neutrons)
o More E and more efficient
Fukushima
Pressure went up
o Created steam and H
Had to release gas into atmos. to release pressure
H built up exposed to oxygen outside and blew up
o Explosions on building, but not reactor core
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