[CHEM 1003] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (17 pages long)

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CHEM 1003
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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ASK ABOUT OPTICALLY ACTIVE
Alpha = UP
Beta = DOWN
B takes over if there are both
Body cant break up B
Fermentation Lab
Temp
o Fermentation rate up then back down as temp up
PH
o F Rate increases as pH up
Scientific Method
Ask a question
Do background research
Construct a hypothesis
Test hypothesis/experiment
Analyze data/conclusions
Results
Primary
Created during time
Original doc
Secondary
Interprets primary
History book
Fermentation
Oxidation
o Incr. in C-O bonds
Reduction
o Decr. In C-O bonds
Lactic acid
Yeast
Acetic
NAD to NADH = reduction
o Body reverses process = oxidation
3 ways to make oils more solid
1. Hydrogenation
Adds H to double bonds using a metal catalyst transforming it into saturated
Less double bonds as result
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Not the same as trans fats
2. Trans Fats
Unsaturated fats
Created artificially and added
3. Interesterification
Adding saturated fatty acid chains and scrambling triglyceride order
Anaerobic
No Oxygen
Essential Nutrients
Cant be made by the body
Macronutrients energy and raw material
Fats
o Glycerol, 3 fatty acids, cis vs. trans, sat vs. un, chiral
Carbs
o Chain/cyclic
o Chiral centers, polymers, anomeric C,
Proteins
o AA polymer/peptide
o 1 2 3 4??
o There are 9 essential AA
o Chiral centers
o Building blocks AA
Micronutrients
Vitamins
o Organic
o Predict polarity (phobic or phillic)
Minerals
o Inorganic (not made of C)
BMR (Basal Metabolism Rate)
Min. E required daily to support basic body functions
Cal/(kg*hr)
Varies with weight, age, body content
Gene
Code used for production of proteins
Genome
Complete set of inheritable traits of an organism
Mutation
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