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[BSCI 105] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (31 pages long)


Department
Biological Sciences Program
Course Code
BSCI 105
Professor
Norma Allewell
Study Guide
Final

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UMD
BSCI 105
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 1: Chemical Principles
31 August 2016
Protein structure
o Color-coding
Red is nitrogen
Yellow is sulfur
White is hydrogen
Blue is oxygen
o Proteins are big
o This protein has a fixed 3-D structure, all the same types look the same
o The chemical bonds between the atoms help create the shape
Covalent bonds
o Electrical forces also help maintain the shape
Topics
o Elements in the human body
o What are elements and compounds?
o Atoms and their structure
o The periodic table
o Electron shells and orbitals and chemical bonds
o Covalent bonds
o Some simple molecular structures
o Polar versus nonpolar bonds
o Ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds
o Hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules
o Acids and bases
o pH
Atoms of Life
o Four kinds of atoms make up >96% of the human body. They are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,
and nitrogen
o Seven other kinds of atoms make up almost all the rest (several metals, phosphorus, sulfur)
o In addition, there are about 15 trace elements
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o
We have so many oxygen atoms because we are mostly water
Carbon is because organic chemistry
Calcium is in bones and teeth
Phosphorus is in ATP, bones, and teeth
Potassium is in nerve synapses, cytoplasm of cells
Sulfur found in proteins, in bloodstreams
Chlorine is found in stomach acid
Magnesium found in bones
How are Atoms related to Elements and Compounds?
o Elements and compounds are pure chemical substances, defined by the atoms they contain
EG: gold, sulfur, water, sodium chloride
o Elements contain only one kind of atom. As a result, they cannot be broken down into other
chemical substances
E.g.: oxygen and nitrogen gas, metals
o Compounds contain more than one kind of atom and so they can be broken down into other
chemical substances. The atoms are present in a fixed ratio
E.g.: Water, carbon dioxide, biological molecules
o What isn’t an atom or compound?
Mixtures: different compounds, ratio of different compounds can change
Saline, waxes, oils
o Structure of Atoms
Nucleus: One or more protons
+1 Charge, mass 1 AMU
Electrons
-1 Charge, 0AMU
Atomic Number
Number electrons=number of protons
THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF AN ATOM DEPENDS ON ITS ATOMIC
NUMBER
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