Study Guides (380,000)
US (220,000)
UMD (10,000)
BSCI (1,000)
Study Guide

BSCI 124- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 18 pages long!)


Department
Biological Sciences Program
Course Code
BSCI 124
Professor
Edgar Moctezuma
Study Guide
Midterm

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 18 pages of the document.
UMD
BSCI 124
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unit 2 Study Guide Part 1 (Lectures 8-11)
Lecture 8: Plant Systematics and Darwinian Evolution
Taxonomic hierarchy
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species: a set of individuals that are closely related by descent from a common ancestor
and ordinarily can reproduce with each other, but not with members of any other species
Biological Species concept: Species are groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural
populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups
A. Lamarckism
Lamarck believed that traits acquired (or diminished) during the lifetime of an organism
can be passed to its offspring
This theory was later disproved, but it did introduce the mechanism for evolution and the
idea that species can change by some natural process
B. Charles Darwin
Introduced the concept of natural selection while observing animals in the Galapagos
Islands
Natural Selection: the differential survival and reproduction of individuals with
inheritable characteristics – nature is the selective mechanism.
1. This concept operates on the premises of Variation, Overproduction, Competition, and
Survival to reproduce
Artificial Selection - selective breeding practiced by humans on domesticated plants and
animals
Gradualism- the view of evolution claiming that evolution occurs as a slow and steady
accumulation of changes in organism
Punctuated equilibrium- evolution proceeds with periods of inactivity, followed by
periods of very rapid evolution
Lecture 9: Plant Adaptations and Evolutions
3 types of Natural Selection
Directional Selection- one trait at the extreme of the range is favored over individuals
with the average or opposite extreme of the trait
Stabilizing Selection- the average trait is favored over the extreme traits
Disruptive Selection- all of the extreme traits are favored over the average traits
Evidence in support of evolution
1. Comparative Anatomy: Animals and plants can have homologous organs (organs with
the same evolutionary origin but different functions) and analogous organs (same
function but different origins). They can also operate through convergent evolution
(unrelated organisms in a similar environment evolve similar adaptive structures), and
also carry vestigial organs (non-functional/degenerative organs or parts of organs)
2. Mimicry (a harmless species may resemble a dangerous species) and protective
coloration (Coloration that allows an organism to blend with its environment)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

3. Developmental Biology/Embryology: Early embryos of different mammal species look
very much alike due to the common features that they share.
4. Biogeography: The unequal distributions of organisms on earth which begins with a
species originating from one location and spreads out across the world until they
encounter a barrier
5. Molecular Biology: Our genes can provide an evolutionary record through our own DNA
6. Fossil record- fossils (traces left by previous organisms) are the most compelling
evidence for evolution as they are tracked by the ever growing fossil record
The 3 types of Co-evolution/Symbiosis (the long term evolutionary adjustment of one group of
organisms to another through cooperation)
Parasitism: The interaction benefits one organism but harms the other one.
Commensalism: One organism benefits from the bond, but the other is not affected in any
way
Mutualism: The interactions benefit both organisms (The Endosymbiont Theory is an
example of this since chloroplasts and mitochondria are descendants of prokaryotes
Lecture 10: Viruses, Bacteria, and Fungi
A. Viruses
Made of a protein coat (capsid) and a nucleic acid for information on how to
replicate themselves
Not affected by antibiotics since they focus on killing bacterial threats
Viruses are not able to self-replicate, but they still count as living organisms since
they can replicate with a host
B. Bacteria
Most bacterial species are heterotrophic (obtain food from other organisms) while
others are autotrophic (can make their own food)
Can reproduce asexually
The 6 kingdoms
Kingdom Archaebacteri
a
Eubacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia
Prokaryoti
c or
Eukaryoti
c
Prokaryotic Prokaryoti
c
Eukaryoti
c
Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryoti
c
Trivia ‘ancient’
bacteria;
often live in
harsh
environments
Originally
classified
as plants
due to cell
walls
Ex.
Algae,
protozoa;
have a
cell wall,
not
cellulose
Ex.
Mushroom
s, mold;
rooted
plants
Obtain
nutrients by
photosynthes
is
Obtains
nutrients
via
ingestion
C. Fungi
Can act as decomposers by obtaining nutrition from organic matter to recycle
nutrients
Composed of branched hyphae, which contributes to spore production
Causes a majority of plant diseases through mycotoxins
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version