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BSCI 202 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Trachea, Bronchus, Hemoglobin

Biological Sciences Program
Course Code
BSCI 202
Study Guide

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1. Why is the gas exchange performed in the lungs so critical for life (a correct answer
should involve ATP)?
Gas exchange is necessary for the body to intake oxygen, which is a necessary component
of respiration, as it is the terminal electron acceptor when producing ATP. This process
also releases carbon dioxide, which can be harmful if not removed. That being said, when
the blood flows into the lungs, it has a high carbon dioxide concentration but a low
oxygen concentration --this can have a concentration gradient effect and will allow these
gasses to move into their respective places. As the part of the lungs (aveoli) are highly
folded to provide more surface area, lungs are able to remove more waste and replenish
oxygen better. Since ATP is necessary for sustaining life, this is very important.
2. a) What is pleural fluid? Where is it located?
Pleural fluid is fluid that is found in the layers of the membrane around the lungs and
thoracic cavity, also known as the pleural cavity and aids with breathing.
b) Which lung has fewer lobes? Why?
The left lung has fewer lobes because the heart sits in the left side of the chest and
occupies more space.
3. As you inhale, air moves through your respiratory system and into your lungs. List, in
order, the structures through which air passes until it reaches the alveoli.
Air travels through the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles and
then finally reaches the alveoli.
4. a) What happens when carbon dioxide diffuses out of tissues into the blood? How
does this impact pH in the blood?
When carbon dioxide diffuses out of tissues into the blood and dissolves in the plasma or
becomes attached to red blood cells or even hemoglobin. The higher the concentration of
carbon dioxide in the blood, the pH of the blood lowers.
b) How are hydrogren ions neutralized in the blood?
Hydrogen ions are neutralized not only by the buffer that carbon dioxide assists in
creating, but also because they attach to hemoglobin and free up the oxygen to be
delivered wherever needed.
c) What happens to bicarbonate ions in the blood? The movement of bicarbonate ions
creates an electrical imbalance – what process fixes this imbalance?
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