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BSCI 202- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 43 pages long!)


Department
Biological Sciences Program
Course Code
BSCI 202
Professor
Dr.O' Brien
Study Guide
Final

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UMD
BSCI 202
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 2: Blood
GSS: Monday and Wednesday MTH0409 3:30-4:30
Blood: the only fluid tissue in the human body
Classified as connective tissue
Components:
o Living cells called formed elements
Erythrocytes: red blood cells transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
Leukocytes: white blood cells defend body against pathogens
Platelets: cells fragment from megakaryocytes, important to blood
clotting
-cyte = mature cell, -blast = immature cell
Erythrocytes = red blood cells
Leukocytes = white blood cells
Platelets are not a mature cell, not an actual cell
o Non-living matrix: plasma is the fluid and solutes
Physical Characteristics
o Used as a vehicle of transport
o Color range
Oxygen-rich blood is scarlet red
Oxygen-poor blood is dull red
Blood is never blue, filtered through skin
o pH between 7.35-7.45 (7.4)
o Blood temperature is slightly higher than body temperature at 38
Transfers heat throughout the body
Blood Hematocrit and Beyond
o When blood is centrifuged,
Erythrocytes sink to the body (45% of blood, known as hematocrit)
Buffy coat contains leukocytes and platelets (less than 1% of blood)
Think, whitish layer between erythrocytes and plasma
Plasma rises to the top (55% of blood)
Can observe infection, leukemia, anemia
o Average blood volume
Women = 5 L
Men = 5.5 L
Plasma: mostly composed of water, salts/electrolytes and plasma proteins
o Plasma proteins = 6-8%
Albumin: carriers
Fibrinogen: blood clotting
Globulins: carriers, clotting factors, precursor protein- angiotensinogen,
immunoglobulins
o Solutes = 280 mOsm/L
o Water = about 90% of plasma
o Kwashiorkor: due to low blood plasma osmolarity, anorexia, bloating
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Lecture 2: Blood
o Nutrients = glucose, amino acids, lipids, vitamins
o Wastes = urea, bilirubin, creatinine
o Gases (dissolved) = oxygen, carbon dioxide
o Hormones
o Electrolytes (salts, ions, minerals)
Relatively high concentrations of Na+ and Cl-
Relatively low concentrations of H+, HCO3-, K+, Ca2+
Buffered Ringer’s Solution: a solution of distilled water containing electrolytes and
compounds so that they have same concentrations as their occurrence in body fluids
o This solution is iso-osmotic to our blood and
280-300 mOsm/L
Blood and other tissue osmolarity must be equal to prevent net
movement of fluids
o Used in IV solutions
Too high or low osmolarity causes problems in the absorption of the
solution
Cells swell or shrivel
Osmosis: water/solvent diffuses down its concentration gradient
The link between water and salt (solvent = water, solute = electrolyte), water follows
salt
o Solutes in the body include electrolytes like sodium, potassium and calcium ions
o Changes in electrolyte balance causes water to move from one compartment to
another
This alters blood volume and pressure, which can impair the activity of
cells
o Water moves from low solute to high solute
High solvent to low solvent
o Pure water has solute present
o Water reabsorption follows solute reabsorption
Blood Plasma and pH
Acidosis: blood becomes to acidic (less than 7.35)
o Holding your breath, too much CO2
Alkalosis: blood becomes too basic (greater than 7.45)
o Hyperventilating, getting rid of the CO2
o In each scenario, the respiratory system and kidneys help restore blood pH to
normal
Carbon dioxide can dissolve in water (blood plasma) and form carbonic acid
o Forms an acid, releases hydrogen into the solution
Acid-Base Balance
Normal pH of arterial blood = 7.4
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