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Final

BSCI 207 Final: Complete and Comprehensive 219 Page Final Exam Study Guide Fall 2015Premium


Department
Biological Sciences Program
Course Code
BSCI 207
Professor
Leo Shapiro
Study Guide
Final

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BSCI207 Principles of Biology III
- Organismal Biology
Final Exam Study Guide
University of Maryland Fall 2015

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BSCI207Lecture1CourseOverview
● Scaling
○ Surfacetovolumeratios
○ Howsizeorshapeaffectsfunction
● Howdoorganismsretainbodyheat/minimizeheatloss?
○ Theykeeptheirfeetverycoldsothatthere’snotalotofheatflowingoutoftheir
bodies
● Organismswithalargesurfaceareatovolumeratiolosemoreheatthanthosewitha
smallsurfaceareatovolumeratio
● Countercurrentheatexchange:Heatmovesoutofwarmarterialbloodandintocold
venousblood
● Warmbloodedfishhavewhatiscalledcountercurrentgasexchange:bloodexitsthe
exchangesurfaceareaatahigheroxygenpartialpressurewhenexchangeis
countercurrent
● Diffusion/Osmosis
○ Freshwaterfishintakewaterandsaltwaterfishlosewatersincesaltwaterfishlive
insalineenvironmentsThereismoresalt(lessfreshwater)outsidetheirbodies
sotobalanceoutthesaltlevels,saltwaterfishlosewateroutoftheir
bloodstreams.
2GuidingThemes:
● Unity
○ Organismsaregovernedbythesamephysicalandchemical
principles/constraints
○ Sharedancestry
● Diversity
○ Differentevolutionarytrajectories
○ Similarities/Differencesamongorganisms
○ Originsofmulticellularity
○ Mayfindslightlydifferentsolutionstoproblemsorradicallydifferentsolutions
amongverydistantlyrelatedorganisms

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BSCI207Lecture2InterpretingPhylogeneticTreesandTracingtheEvolutionofTraits
PhylogeneticAnalysis:
● Inferenceofpatternsofevolutionaryrelationships(sharedancestors)basedonthe
distributionofcharacterstatesintheorganismbeingstudied.
● Genes(andotherDNA)inorganismsarecopiedtothenextgenerationwith
errors/changes
● Example:
○ Lineage1=TTAGCGCGTTACA→TTAGCGCGTTTCA
UsesforTree:
● Understandingevolution,epidemiologyandforensics,conservationbiology
HowtoRead/InterpretATree:
● Aphylogenetictreevisuallydisplaysrelationshipsamongtheorganismsbeingstudied
● Clade,cladogram
○ Cladogrambranchlengthsarenotmeaningful(tellsyourelationships)
○ Indicatebranchingstructure
● Eachnodeinthetreerepresentsthedivergenceofonelineageintotwosisterlineages
● 2sisterlineagesshareamostrecentcommonancestor
● Branchescanberotatedwithoutchangingrelationships
● Alltheorganismsatthetipshavethesameamountofevolutionaryhistory(onedidnot
evolvefromanother)
● Alivingspeciescan’tbe“primitive”→characterstates(features)canbe“primitive”ina
particularlineage
● Organismsaremosaicsof“primitive”andderived(newlyarisen)characterstates
Mammals:
● Monotremes:layeggs
○ Platypus
● Marsupials:youngderivedmainlyinmom’spouch
○ Kangaroos
● Placentals:highlydevelopedplacenta
○ Humans,bears,rats…
Flightless“Ratite”Birds:AControversy
● What’sthehistoryofflightlessness?
○ Isitasinglelossofflight?
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