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BSCI 223 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Gram Staining, Microscopy, Medical Microbiology


Department
Biological Sciences Program
Course Code
BSCI 223
Professor
Buchner
Study Guide
Midterm

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UMD
BSCI 223
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Definitions:
Lecture 2
Abiogenesis: origin from the earth
Fermentative metabolism: uses energy from organic molecules
Light microscopy
oSimple: microscope that contain a single magnifying lens
oCompound: series of lenses for magnification
Lecture 3
Microscopy
oContrast: differences in intensity between two objects, or between an
object and background
oDark field microscope: best for observing pale objects; will cause
specimen to appear light against the dark background
oPhase microscope: used to examine living organisms or specimens that
would be damaged/altered by attaching them to slides or staining
oFluorescent microscope: direct UV light source at a specimen, causing
them to radiate energy back as longer, visible wavelengths
oConfocal microscopes: use UV lasers to illuminate fluorescent
chemicals in a single plane
oElectron microscope: detailed views of bacteria, viruses, internal
cellular structures, molecules, and large atoms
Morphology
oCoccus: circular
oCoccobacillus: oval
oBacillus: rod
oVibrio: narrow on one end, fatter on the other, rod shaped
oSpirillum: wavy line
oSpirochete: tighter wavy line
oPleomorphic: random order
Lipoteichoic acids: found in the structure of gram positive cell walls, they are
teichoic acids that are covalently bound to membrane lipids
Lecture 5
Reductionism: understanding the whole = understanding the parts
Holism: the sum of the parts > the parts
Monotrichous: singular polar flagellum
Peritrichous: multiple flagella distributed over entire cell
Taxis: directed movement
oChemotaxis: in response to chemical gradients
oAerotaxis: in response to oxygen concentration
oPhototaxis: in response to light intensity
oMagnetotaxis: in response to magnetic fields
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Tumble: clockwise rotation of flagella
Run: counterclockwise rotation of flagella
Random walk: bacterium swimming in absence of gradient
Biased random walk: bacterium swimming in presence of gradient
Lecture 6
Taxonomy: grouping organisms
Temperature ranges:
oPsychrophiles: organisms that can survive/thrive in cold temperatures
oMesophiles: organisms that can survive/thrive in moderate
temperatures
oThermophiles: organisms that can survive/thrive in hot temperatures
oHyperthermophiles: organisms that can survive/thrive in extremely
hot temperatures
Acid ranges
oAcidophile: organisms that can survive/thrive in acidic environments
oNeutrophile: organisms that can survive/thrive in neutral
environments
oAlkalophile: organisms that can survive/thrive in basic environments
Other lifestyles
oHalophile: organisms that can survive/thrive in high salt
concentrations
oOsmophile: organisms that can survive/thrive with low water
availability
oPiezophile: organisms that can survive/thrive in high pressure
Oxygen requirements
oObligate aerobes: organisms that can grow in high oxygen
concentration
oObligate anaerobes: organisms that cannot grow in high oxygen
concentrations
oFacultative anaerobes: growth is optimal when oxygen is present, but
can still grow when oxygen is not present
oAerotolerant: can’t use oxygen to grow, but is not negatively affected
by it
oMicroaerophiles: organisms that require low oxygen levels to grow
Media
oDefined media: all components quantified
oComplex media: undefined components
oEnriched media: complex media for growth of fastidious organisms
oNutrient media: contains the minimal requirements for growth
oSelective media: allows some to grow, but eliminates others
oDifferential media: has indicators that highlight differences in
physiology
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