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BSCI 223- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 30 pages long!)


Department
Biological Sciences Program
Course Code
BSCI 223
Professor
Dwyer
Study Guide
Final

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UMD
BSCI 223
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 1: Introduction to Microbiology
What is microbiology?
The study of small organisms
Microbes: microorganisms, smaller than the eyes can see, individually, without help
o Need a microscope or other machine
o Prokaryotic: bacteria, archaea
Cells lack a nucleus
Bacterial cell walls contain PG
Asexual reproduction
o Eukaryotic: fungi, protozoa, algae
Cells contain a nucleus composed of genetic material
o Acellular: viruses
Obligate parasites: cannot live on their own without cells to infect
o Exist in very extreme environments (high/low temperature, fossils, rocks, high
salinity, etc.)
Thermophilic, psychrophilic, halophilic
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Lecture 2: Microscopy & History of Microbiology
Planet Microbe: Why do we care?
What microbes can do to us:
o Cause sickness, disease, death
o Ruin food, crops, cattle, destroy products
o Biofouling of industrial surfaces
What microbes can do for us:
o Provide health and prevent disease
o Generate drugs
o Produce foods and beverages
o Nutrient cycling in nature
o Drives climate conditions
o Energy production
o Biotechnology
Example: CelA enzyme
o Single microbial enzyme degrades difficult complex plant material better than
current mixtures
Many more out there with potential to improve the process
Major contribution in the production of biofuels
Microbiology in the News
Atarti iroes hold lue to Earth’s oge
o Thin slimy layer of bright green microbes found at anoxic bottom of Antarctic
Lake Fryxell generates a tiny oasis of oxygen around themselves
Bacteria have evolved the ability to survive in these environments
o Could shed light on how to detect signs of life on distant planets
Also might explain evolution of microbial life after the Great Oxidation
Event
o Possibly modern example of how cyanobacteria adapted to oxygen
The most Mars-like place on Earth is Near Lifeless Void
o McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctic
Cold, win-swept tundra in permafrost similar to Mars
Relatively lifeless
Digging down 2 feet into the permafrost researchers did not find any
living microbe, but only dead (dormant) bacteria
However, the dormant bacteria were not technically dead, but
may be able to grow and thrive once conditions change
Case 1: ELVIS Meltdown
Understand and apply knowledge of bacterial structure and function
Understand the isolation and growth properties of microorganisms
Understand the mechanisms of microbial growth and how to control growth
Mars rover was sent named ELVIS
o Exterior shell was degraded after return
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