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[BSCI 283] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes fot the exam (42 pages long!)


Department
Biological Sciences Program
Course Code
BSCI 283
Professor
Daniel Stein
Study Guide
Final

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UMD
BSCI 283
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Microbiology Course Introduction 1/25/17
Microbes
o Escherichia coli- rod shaped with flagella for movement
o Streptococcus pnemoniae- a string of spheres
o Naming-Geus speies
o Cocci-spherical cells
o Bacilli-rod shaped cells
o Prokaryotes-no organelles
Bacteria (Eubacteria)
Archaea (Archaebacteria)
o Eukaryotes
Fungi (yeasts and molds)
Protozoa
Algae
Helminths (multicellular parasites, worms)
o Non-cellular
Viruses, viroids, prions
o Microbes-microscopic life forms
o Individual cells usually seed using a microscope-less than 1mm
o Most between 10^-4mm and 1mm
o Microbe size: eukaryotesprokaryotesviruses
o Cell size and morphology cannot be used to determine relatedness
o Almost all of biology are microbes-ajority of earth’s ioass
o Human body 10^3cells-microbiome made of 10^14 cells
o Bacteria are dominant life form on Earth, only 1% have been studied
Prokaryotic Cell Biology 1/30/17
Microbial Colonies
o If you spread a sample from any source on a plate, multiple colonies will result
o Microbes live in complex communities with others- mixed culture situation
o Pure culture situation-all the same microbes
o Microbial mats-colored layers of microbial communities
o Symbiotic relationships-layers feed on another
o Use pure cultures to characterize microbes ex. Pasteur and Koch
o Use mixed cultures to determine relationships ex. Winogradsky and Beijerick
o Discover immunity, antimicrobial drugs and biogeochemical cycles during The
Golden Age
o Winogradsky (1856-1953)-created column-illustrate relationship between
microorganisms and environment-supplemented and sealed off
o Different types of microorganisms proliferate-distinct zones
o Column is complete, self-controlled recycling system driven by light energy
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o Different microorganisms in column are interdependent
Characterizing Microbes
o Compound light microscopy- different types of optics make it easier to see
features
Bright Field
Phase Contrast
Dark Field
Microorganisms
o Cause sickness, suffering, death
o Prevent infections by pathogens
o Nutrient recycling, bioremediation-biotechnology
o Model systems for biology
o Generate and destroy food, drugs, beverages
o Major impact on evolution ex. Oxygenated by microbes
Cell Morphologies
o Coccus-sphere shaped
o Bacillus-rod shaped
o Filamentous-long, thin
o Pleomorphic-microbes that change shape and size as grow
o Spirillum-curved rod shape
o Spirochete-long thin spiraled
o Vibrio-comma shaped
Common Types
o Helicobacter pylori-causes stomach ulcers
o Pseudomonas aeruginosa-affects MS patients, infects long
o Borrelia burgdorfen-wound infection
o Clostridium difficile-present in hospitals, often antibiotic resistant
Terminology
o There are many bacilli that are not in bacillus family
o Can be momomorphic-variability in cell size and shape, change as they grow
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