Study Guides (400,000)
US (230,000)
UMD (10,000)
CHEM 131 (500)
Study Guide

CHEM 131- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 25 pages long!)


Department
Chemistry and Biochemistry
Course Code
CHEM 131
Professor
Earl Stone
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 25 pages of the document.
UMD
CHEM 131
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

August 29, 2017
Work on problems backwards
Chang’s Essentials – 2 semesters worth of freshman chem. Good for mcat, pcat, etc.
“General Chemistry 1” blue book (mastering the fundamental skills)
“Organic Chemistry” green book (work on it before starting orgo!)
Measurements:
o Time
o Temperature
o Amount
Size length, area, volume
Mass
Moles = AMOUNT
o Lumens (light intensity)
o Amperes
Remembering vocab: the word itself, the definition (add “science” when googling), using it in a sentence that does not define it
Exams: 15-20 problems
Go to TA or Net Tutor etc. for help
No extra credit, no bonus, no redoes everything based on exams
Office hours: MTTh from 1-2 pm
For exams: reset calculator, pen, white out, ID card
Do best on first exam!
Make answers easy to find and make it clean. Use sig figs and units
Qualitative observation
Quantitative observation
Hypothesis
Experiment
Law
Theory
August 31, 2017
Law of Conservation of Mass: mass/matter can be neither created/destroyed
Law of Conservation of Energy: in any system not involving nuclear rxns/velocities approaching the velocity of light, energy
cannot be created/destroyed. First Law of Thermodynamics
Law of Conservation of Mass-Energy: Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity: E=mc2
Mass of a body changes as the energy possessed by the body changes. Matter may be created by the materialization of a photon
into an electron-positron pair or it may be destroyed, by the annihilation of this pair of elementary particles to produce a pair of
photons
Law of Definite Proportions: 2 or more elements combine to form a compound their masses in that compound are in a fixed +
definite ratio
Law of Multiple Proportions: 2 elements combine to form more than 1 compound
Intensive: independent of amount
Degree of precision: # of decimal places
Account for time + temperature in a lab
Don’t forget unit + label on #s
Smallest sig figs # of sig figs in the answer
“5” is diff.:
42.5001 43
42.5000 keep if sig fig is even. Round up if sig fig is odd. 42
41.5000 42
Any 0’s to the right to the decimal place + first non-0 # counts as sig figs
No decimal points 0’s do not count in the sig figs
Truncate on decimal places on addition + subtraction. Do math first and then find out which # has least decimal places and use
that.
ex. 46.83-0.03
2 dec. 2 dec.
= 46.80
ex. 48.2 46
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

1 dec. 0 dec.
= 2
(1.68) [ .−.
.8 × 3]
2.3 limits certainty the most
(1.68)[ .
.8×3]
3 sig figs
Chemistry: science that describes matter its properties-composition-structure, the changes it undergoes, and the energy
changes that accompany those processes
Matter: anything that has mass + occupies space
Energy: the capacity to do work/transfer heat
Chemical properties: chemical changes. Describes the characteristic ability of a substance to react to form new substances
(flammability + corrosion, rusting/oxidation, chemical rxns)
Physical Properties: physical changes. Characteristics that scientists can measure w/o changing the composition of the sample
under study (mass, color, volume, moles occupied by the sample)
o Changes of state, density, color, solubility
Extensive Properties: depend on quantity.
o Vary w/ the amount of the substance
o Include mass, weight, + volume
Intensive Properties: do not depend on quantity
o Include color, melting + boiling pt., electrical conductivity, + physical state @ a given temp.
o Determine a substance’s identity
o Have an important intensive property called density (d), a ratio of 2 extensive properties, mass + volume
Gas has low IMA (intermolecular attractions)
Solid has strong IMA
Bulk elements: C, H, N, O, S
building blocks of the compounds that make up our organs + muscles. Constitute bulk of diet
Macrominerals: Na, Mg, K, Ca, Cl, P
provide essential ions in body fluids + form the major structural components of the body
Trace elements: V, Cr, Ni, F, Sn, Si, As
many are toxic, but too less can lead to death
September 5, 2017
Electrostatic interactions: holds together atoms in all substances that contain more than 1 atom
Interactions between electrically charged particles such as P + e-
Atomic mass: weighted avg.
Hydrogen: H-D exchange
Compounds: combination of 2 or more elements in definite ratios by mass (Law of definite proportions)
The character of each element is lost when forming a compound
Molecules: smallest unit of a compound that retain the characteristics of the compound
Composition of molecular compound chemical compound
Empirical formula: simplest whole # ratio of the molecular formula
Molecular formula: chemical symbols + # of each representing composition representing actual # but not position
Structural formula: chemical symbols + # of each representing composition representing actual # + position
Cation: + charge
Anion: - charge
Ionic bond: completely transferred e- over
- high melting pt.
- don’t evaporate
- strong electrostatic attractions
Binary ionic compound: ionic compound that contains 2 elements (1 cation, 1 anion)
- cations always named first
Polyatomic ion: groups of atoms that bear a net electric charge
- atoms in a polyatomic ions are held together by the same covalent bond that hold ions together in molecules
Remember common cations + anions (check permanganate)
Waters of hydration: ionic compounds that contain specific ratios of loosely bound water molecules
can be removed by heating
Naming polyatomic ionic compounds
Silver, thallium, and zinc have fixed charges
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version