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CLAS 170

Exam #1Study Guide Monday: Classical Myths and Country Music o Question One: Orpheus was famous for one big mistake. It was: His wife, Euridice, died so he went to the underworld to get her back. Used his music to persuade the gods to allow him to take her under one condition, had to walk in front of her and not look back until they were both in the upperworld. He looked back before that and she vanished. • Orpheus was said to have founded country music, created World’s fair, each country had its own pavilion Parthenon – temple inAthens to honorAthena • Ideas regularly appear as persons: Anthropomorphim • Sex=Eros (Cupid) Strife=Eris Love and War interconnected • Ouranos (Sky) and Gaia (Earth): Continuously having sex, creating many babies (Titans, Cyclopes, Hecatonchires) o Kronus (Titan, son of Gaea, father of Zeus) castrated his father Ouranos o Penis fell into the Ocean, Aphrodite (goddess of love) born from it, Furies (revenge) born from the blood that landed on Earth • Sex leads to fighting (ex. famous war between Greeks and Trojans) – Judgment of Paris Dysfunctional Relationships ● Zeus refused sex from Thetis (Mother ofAchilles) because it was rumored that she would have a son that would overthrow him Big Birds ● Eagles in mythology – Symbol of Zeus ● Prometheus had his liver eaten by an eagle sent down on Zeus’orders ● Brought fire and good meat to mankind, Zeus punished man with Pandora ● Later released because Prometheus knew the son destined to overthrow Zeus Wednesday: The World of Greeks ● Christianity gave myths a bad name, wanted to persuade the Greeks and Romans that their myths were false and that they needed to believe their faith and Jesus. ● History from Historia which means “inquiry” ● Oral culture, written evidence had to do research on their own history ● Some greeks began their history with the Trojan war, formally though Greeks began their history in 776 B.C. which is when the first Olympic games happened. Rediscovery of Troy ● (1822-1890): key character of rediscovering myths, Started own company trading with Russians andAmericans, myths from children’s book “Universal History for Children” ○ Aeneas fleeing from Troy and Troy today Archaeology ● Heinrich became the father of Archaeology - “the study of ancient things” ● Now: “the recovery of the past through the study of its material remains.” ● Troy = northwest corner of Turkey ● Heinrich found King Priam’s treasures (wealthy city) ● Broke contract, thought objects were German not Turkish, displayed in museum in Berlin ● Later taken by the Russian army during World War II, lost 1945 How can material objects tell us about myths and the worlds that created them? ● Decorated scenes from myth ● Illustrate objects described in myths ● Early forms of writing ● Prove existence of places Who were the Greeks? ● PrehistoricAges ○ Paleolithic (Old StoneAge) 4,000 B.C. ○ Neolithic (New StoneAge) 6,000 B.C. ○ Bronze 3,000 B.C. ○ Iron 1,200 B.C. ● MythicAges ○ Gold, Silver, Bronze, Heroic, Iron ● Greeks used the word Barbarians to describe those who didn’t speak Greek ● Greeks appeared around 2,000 B.C. – first evidence in the BronzeAge Minoan Civilization (3,000-1,400 B.C.) ● Palace at Knossos for King Minos was completely open on an island, expected no threats ● LinearA – First linear tablet found with Greek indications, Minoans not Greek ● Labyrinth of Minos – Hired Daedalus (father of Icarus) to build labyrinth w/Minotaur ● Primarily worshipped Mother Goddess – Zeus came to overtake Hera Mycenaean Civilization (2,000-1,200 B.C.) ● Home city of Agamemnon, Chief city of Greeks at the time, Palace at Knossos ● Death Masks preserved the face of the deceased ● Worshipped Zeus (sky god) ● Linear B – early Greek names of important Gods and goddesses appeared ● Mnemosyne – means “memory” Discussion: Daedalus and Icarus • Daedalus and Icarus – Daedalus exiled to island with King Minos, Minos has him construct the labyrinth to house the Minotaur, Daedalus is an Athenian who wishes to escape with his son Icarus, constructs a set of wings and Icarus is told to not fly too close to the sun or too low in the moisture, Icarus flies too high and his wings break, causing him to fall to his death – Icarus, Daedalus making wings, and Hermes pictured below Perspectives of Myth • Freudian – psychoanalysis • Structuralist –Dichotomies, Male/Female, Mom/Dad, God/Human, Good/Bad • Feminist – the role and power of women in myths • Charter – myths serves practical purpose of enforcing religious/social practices • Etiology – explains the cause or origin of things, primitive science • Ritual – religious practices • Externalist/Nature – myths reaction to natural phenomena • Jungian –Archetypes • Narratology – serves a particular sphere of action, tells a story • Neurological – due to human physiological responses, brain wants cause/effect Monday: The Greek Myth of Creation: Hesiod's Theogony ● Question One: The Greeks borrowed central elements of their myth of creation from: ○ Answer: Mesopotamia – “Middle of the River” – reference Tigris and Euphrates ● Greeks got myths from Egypt/Asia, Greeks changed myths to fit their lifestyle ● Cosmogony – “the origin of the world” ○ Cosmos: Greek for “universe”, beautiful and perfectly ordered ● Before Greek Mythology gods were always in animal form ● Hesiod's Theogony - "The Birth of the Gods" ● Greeks believed the myths came from floating Muses ○ Muses: Nine goddesses, the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, preside over the arts and sciences. ○ The Muses represent different things: Epic, Tragedy, Comedy, Dance, Love, etc. ○ All the Muses are women; therefore, men learn from women, women create life. Anthropomorphism I ● World created through several generations. First: Zeus and life coming from chaos Anthropomorphism II ● Gym comes from Greek meaning “Nude” ● Women aren't perfect but men are ● When women create kids they aren't perfect. When Zeus makes kids they are perfect Anthropomorphism III ● Chaos Cosmos ● Darkness Light (comes from exiting the womb) ● Gaia Zeus (Movement from the power of the female to the power of the male). ○ First close to your mom and then your father; an often occurrence. ● Female Male ● NaturalHuman (from mountains and lakes to humans) ○ Repression of Children  Proliferation ○ Tyranny  Shared Power (From tyrant gods to democracy) ○ Reflection on human history ● Chaos (empty space waiting to be filled). The first entity we meet in Greek Mythology ● Question 2: Which of the following evolutions in the Theogony does NOT seem to be multicultural but specifically Greek?Answer: Repression of Children--->Proliferation ● In the Beginning… ○ Chaos ("Gap") ○ Gaia ("Earth") ○ Tartaros ("Darkness") ○ Eros ("Love") -if there is going to be birth we need sex ● Mr. Ouranos and Mrs. Gaia. Ouranos is on top of Gaia (like in sex) ○ The sky is thought to be a globe over a flat Earth ● The Children of Ouranos and Gaia ○ The Titans (The stretched to reach the Olympians) ○ The Cyclopes ○ The Hundred-Handers (Hecatonchires) ● Question 3: What trait do all of the children of Ouranos and Gaia share? Answers:Abnormal bodies (physically not perfect) reflects Evolution Wednesday: The Rise of Zeus ● Question 1: Zeus' first wife, Metis, has a name which means: Cunning ● Castration - The separation of sky and earth ○ Myth and psychoanalysis, The sickle (harvesting tool), Love and hate ● There is a thought, story, by Freud that women are castrated males ● Psyche (Greek term meaning the “life inside you”) ● Kronos uses a sickle to castrate - reaping the harvest of life created by his father. ● Phallus fell into ocean, creates Aphrodite, blood on land creates Eurinyes (Furies) ● Aphrodite only has a father and no mother - phallus that creates life ● Kronos: The youngest child/Titan and Father Time ● 3 Generations of Gods until the world leaves its final course ● Kronos's father tried not have children by keeping the children inside his wife. ○ Kronos didn't want to make that mistake so ate his children ○ Kronos becomes young again by eating his children ○ He is actually swallowing them. He gives himself a pregnant womb, "envy", He doesn't want the result, he wants to produce the result ○ Kronos's wife/sister (Rhea) didn't give Kronos the last child, Zeus. ○ Kronos's wife gives him a rock instead and he swallows it. Kronos doesn't see the difference between life and death ○ Rhea sneaks Zeus off to be raised in secret on Crete ● Question 2: What strikes you as most puzzling about Zeus' childhood? He is not raised by his mother, he isn't born fully grown, he grows up on Crete, he drinks goat's milk ● Crete is the home of the Earth Goddess – Zeus grows up there to learn his enemy/how to be powerful The Clash of the Titans - Titanomachy ● The titans were stronger than the Olympians, carried boulders up Olympia ● But Olympians were smarter: Zeus releases the giants, they fought on Zeus' side ○ Sky vs. Earth, Strength vs. intelligence, Greeks vs. Barbarians ● Nomen omen (a name gives the future fate to that person, object) Latin ● God of the Sky - Zeus means shining, bright ● Thunder and lightning – Phallic Symbol ● When the Titans were defeated Atlas was punished. He was ordered to hold up the sky ● Atlas was the leader of the Titan rebellion ● Gaia in anger creates a monster to fight Zeus - Typhoeus ● Defeating a monster makes a Greek hero ● Amonster is someone who is not the norm and the norm is a male Discussion: Zeus and Hera ● Zeus eats Metis (Cunning) while she’s pregnant withAthena ● Zeus develops splitting migraine, has Hephaestus (Smith God) split open his head ● Athena (Warrior/Wise/Virgin Goddess) is born from his head ● Hephaestus born from Hera alone and is deformed ● Hera hates Zeus – bunch of affairs ● Zeus doesn’t want same mistake as father so divides power and gives realms of control ● Story of Io - ○ Zeus and Hera Below – when they still loved each other Monday:Athena ● Divide and Conquer ○ 1. Mother Earth: Demeter, Hera ○ 2. Protection of the wild:Artemis ○ 3. Fertility: Aphrodite ○ 4. Wisdom: Athena ● Zeus swallowed Metis, she went to his stomach; often holding Nike “Victory” ● Athena is born from Zeus’head because she represents his intelligence ● Zeus’head is far away from his sexuality, soAthena is the opposite making her a virgin ● Diminish Earth Goddess by not even letting her have kids Aegis (Breast Plate) and Medusa ● Athena’s Temple – Parthenon – “House of the Maiden” ● Medusa was originally a beautiful woman ● Poseidon found her attractive, he raped her in the temple ofAthena ● Athena punished Medusa: Hair to snakes, gaping mouth, looks turned to stone ● Perseus had to prove his manhood by bringing the head of Medusa, uses Athena’s shield like mirror to enter the temple backwards, where blood spilled snakes came alive ● Medusa’s head represents the female genitalia ● Pegasus is born from her head Tiresias ● Seeing mother (Athena as a mother) ● The pleasures of sex, Blindness and Wisdom, Male and Female ● Saw a goddess naked, punished him by blinding him, but gave him the gift of foresight - Saw what the gods saw and
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