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CCJS 100- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 32 pages long!)


Department
Criminology and Criminal Justice
Course Code
CCJS 100
Professor
Justine Madoo
Study Guide
Final

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UMD
CCJS 100
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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CHAPTER 1
THE GOALS OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE
-Crimes: actions that violate laws defining which socially harmful behaviors will be subject to
the government’s power to impose punishments
-Criminal law is defined by elective representatives and Congress who make choices about
behaviors that the government will punish
-Mala in se: offenses that are wrong by their very nature
-Mala prohibita: offenses prohibited by law but not necessarily wrong in themselves
-Ex: gambling, prostitution, and drug use
-Criminal justice system is the means that society uses to “enforce the standards of conduct
necessary to protect individuals and the community”
-System has three goals: doing justice, controlling crime, and preventing crime
Doing Justice
-Concerns fairness and equity in the treatment of people who are drawn into the system
-Requires upholding the rights of individuals as well as punishing those who violate the law
-Goals of doing justice:
-Offenders will be held fully accountable for their actions
-The rights of persons who have contact with the system will be protected
-Like offenses will be treated alike, and officials will take into account relevant
differences among offenders and offenses
-Serves the interest of the people, how system gains public support
Controlling Crime
-Efforts to control crime must be carried out within the framework of the law
-Taking action against wrongdoers helps control crime
-Controls crime by arresting, prosecuting, convicting, and punishing those who disobey the law
Preventing Crime
-Most important way of preventing crime is the effect of the actions of police, courts, and
corrections
-Technological advances can deter crime (surveillance cameras)
-Citizens must rely on police to stop criminals, they cannot take the law into their own hands
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CHAPTER 1
-They must be engaged in preventing crime by doing things like locking their homes, installing
alarm systems, and refraining from walking in dangerous areas
Advancing Goals: Evidence-Based Practices
-Requires development of specific policies to deal with a host of issues such as gun control,
stalking, hate crimes, child abuse, etc.
-Legislators often enact laws based on their beliefs about the nature of a problem and the
responses that will be effective in addressing the problem
-Evidence-based practices: policies developed through guidance from research studies that
demonstrate which approaches are most useful and cost-effective for advancing desired goals
-Social scientists examine causes of crime, effectiveness of crime control strategies, and the
efficiency of police procedures to discover which approaches are most useful and cost effective
in addressing problems
-Policymakers may resist adopting EBP’s because they conflict with their own beliefs
CRIMINAL JUSTICE IN A FEDERAL SYSTEM
-Criminal justice is based on concept of federalism
-Federalism: a system of government in which power is divided between a central (national)
government and regional (state) government
-Most criminal justice activity exists at the state level
Two Justice Systems
-Few offenders break federal laws vs. large amount of offenders break state laws (counterfeiting
vs. assault)
Expansion of Federal Involvement
-Powers off federal agencies have expanded due to crimes no longer being committed at a single
location within a single state
-Disputes over jurisdiction may occur when an offense violates both state and federal laws
-If information is not shared, FBI and local agencies may seek to find same criminals
-Creation of new Department of Homeland Security, Transportation Security Admission, as well
as reorientation of FBI’s priorities (after 9/11)
-Costs of criminal justice are spread equally among federal, state, and local governments
-Threat of decrease in funding
-Budget problems have forced criminal justice system agencies to reduce law enforcement
activities, release offenders early from prison, etc.
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