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CCJS 300 Study Guide - Spring 2019, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Social Science, Project Camelot, Karl Marx


Department
Criminology and Criminal Justice
Course Code
CCJS 300
Professor
Alan Lehman
Study Guide
Midterm

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CCJS 300

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INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH METHODS
WE STUDY RESEARCH METHODS BECAUSE:
-Inaccurate observations
-Resistance to change
-Selective observations
-Illogical reasoning (Gambler’s fallacy)
-Ideology & Politics
RESEARCH IN OTHER SOCIAL SCIENCES:
-Anthropology
-Field research/case studies especially
-Economics
-Psychology/Sociology
-Social work
FEATURES OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD:
-Empirical
-Verifiable
-Cumulative
-Self-corrected
-Ethical & Ideologically neutral
TYPES OF QUESTIONS:
-Measurement, how do we measure what we want to measure?
-Descriptive, what is the gang presence in PG county?
-Exploratory, what should I think about when coming up with a model for a topic?
-Causal, what causes what?
-Evaluative, what happens when laws change, how do people react?
WHO ARE THE RESEARCHERS:
-Academics/professors
-Government employees
-Practitioners
-Journalists
-Students
PARADIGMS
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INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH METHODS
-The way to look at a body of information/material/research, and understand it so it can be used
to do more research
-
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LOGICAL SYSTEMS-LINKING TEHORY AND RESEARCH
-Deductive logic: expectations/hypotheses from theories
-Inductive: generalizations from specific observations
APPROACHES TO RESEARCH
-Positivistic: trying to map the way we think about social sciences using methods from the hard
sciences (Auguste Comte)
-Interpretive: understand everyday life experience (Max Weber)
-Critical: liberating knowledge for a better world (Marx, Freud)
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH & TIME
-Cross-sectional research: a snapshot in time (i.e. survey research)
-Longitudinal research: time as a variable, over/across time
-Time series: observing multiple people, multiple times, across time
-Panel: the same people observed at two or more times
-Cohort: people who share an experience at two or more times
-Case study: small set of people observed intensely over a period of time
PURPOSES OF RESEARCH
-Exploration
-Description
-Explanation (causality)
-Evaluation/Application
RESEARCH PROCESS
Induction Theory
Findings Deduction
Hypotheses
Statistical Analysis
Data Gathering Research Design
Measurement
GENERAL STEPS IN EMPIRICAL RESEARCH
-Problem formulation research
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