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EDCP 310- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 85 pages long!)


Department
Education Counseling and Personnel Services
Course Code
EDCP 310
Professor
Collin Vernay
Study Guide
Midterm

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UMD
EDCP 310
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter 1
Throughout this book, then, the term helper refers to the individual providing assistance,
and the term client refers to the person receiving support
Helping can be defined as one person assisting another in exploring feelings, gaining
insight, and making changes in his or her life.
Psychotherapy is different from helping
Psychotherapy is proven to be helpful but most subgenres do not differ greatly in results
three phases of the psychotherapeutic recovery process. In the first phase, clients change
rapidly in terms of feeling subjectively better. In the second, slower phase, there is a
remediation of symptoms such as depression and anxiety
Benefits of helping
o emotional pain, helping can provide support and relief
o Through the process of helping, clients can also gain insight, such that they come
to understand themselves in new ways
o helping can assist individuals in dealing with existential concerns (i.e., who am I,
where am I going, and what do I want out of life?)
o clients can learn skills needed to live more effectively and reach their potential.
These skills may include learning how to
communicate with others
practicing ways to resolve conflict
becoming more assertive
identifying decision-making strategies
studying more effectively
learning to relax
changing unhealthy habits
o can also assist individuals in making decisions about the direction of their lives.
o An additional facilitative aspect of helping involves helpers providing feedback
about how clients appear to others, information that others might hesitate to
provide
o Client can learn to experience a healthy, nondamaging, intimate relationship with
another person
o effective helping teaches clients to function on their own
Issues helping can cause
o provide just enough relief to enable people to stay in maladaptive situations or
relationships
o can create dependency if clients rely too much on their helpers for support and
feel unable to explore feelings or make changes in their lives without assistance
from the helper.
o helpers’ personal issues sometimes place them at risk for encouraging dependency
in those they assist
o emerges when helpers unduly impose personal or societal values on their clients
o when helpers work outside their areas of competence
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2 factors necessary for people to help
o First, a person must become aware that she or he is in pain or is facing a difficult
situation and then must perceive her or his feelings or situation as being
problematic.
o Second, the pain must be greater than the perceived barriers to seeking help.
Facilitative attitudes include empathy, warmth, genuineness, compassion, and
nonjudgmentalness
FIGURE 1.1 Components needed for effective helping.
o Helping skills
o Facilitative conditions
o Self-awareness
Chapter 2
Thus, the three-stage model moves from exploration (based on client-centered therapy) to
insight (based on psychoanalytic therapy) to action (based on behavioral therapy)
A moderate level of defenses is adaptive because one needs strategies to cope with life.
These defenses become problematic, however, when the individual cannot discriminate
when it is appropriate to use defenses
How people feel has an impact on how they think and behave
How they behave effects how they feel
In summary, I believe that people are influenced by both their biology and their
environment, particularly early experiences that contribute to the development of
attachment to others and self-esteem. Furthermore, although people are influenced by
past experiences, they have some choice and free will and an impetus to make a
difference and have meaning in their lives. It is also important to recognize that people
develop defenses as strategies for coping with the demands of the world.
The three components of helping
o Helping stage
The helping process involves taking clients “down and into”
understanding themselves more and then “up and out” into the world,
better able to cope with problems
Three stages of helping are
Exploration
o one goal is to attend nonverbally to clients and listen
carefully to everything they say
o Another goal is to encourage clients to explore thoughts,
which helpers implement through questions/ probes for
thoughts and restatements
o A third goal is to encourage exploration of feelings, which
helpers do through questions/ probes for feelings,
reflections of feelings, and disclosures of feelings
Insight
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