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GVPT 100 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Diffusion Creep, Grain Boundary

Government and Politics
Course Code
GVPT 100
Study Guide

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Rocks are deformed due to
directional forces acting on them
results of plate tectonics
stress: σ = F/A
types of stresses
uniform: Uniform relates to pressure
3 types of differential stresses
1. Compression results in shortening
2. Extension results in pulling apart
3. Shearing pushes two sides apart
Changes in a body’s dimensions are measured in strain:
Definition of strain: ε = (L1-L0)/L0
Definition of shear strain: γ = tan α (opposite/adjacent)
Stresses can result in two types of deformation:
recoverable (elastic) and permanent (ductile, brittle)
Brittle deformation: Related to breaking of rocks
minerals break apart mainly along pre-existing weak zones ( microfractures)
Ductile deformation:
Diffusion creep.
intracrystalline diffusion and grain boundary diffusion
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Dislocation creep.
orientation of the mineral changes.
Anisotropic minerals have different seismic properties in different directions, and
with preferred glide planes we can preferentially align minerals in rocks.
alignment becomes prominent = production of seismic anisotropy as the seismic
waves travel faster in one direction than in the other
= ability to measure the anisotropy in one direction
principal rock structures: folds and faults
Macroscopic rock structures: Faults
Sibson, 1977
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