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HIST111 Final study guide 2- Important Years, People, Terms, and Themes.docx

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HIST 111
Janna Bianchini

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King Louis VII of France- one of earliest centralizing kings, liege lordship, pious King Philip Augustus II of France- recovers rights on justice and finance, bureaucracy of bailiffs YEARS 1066- Battle of Hastings – William I got Pope’s authority, fought Harold Godwinson and won 1095- Pope Urban’s speech that sparked crusades in Clermont France - People believed objective to free Jerusalem from Muslim rule, but Alexius just wanted help fighting Turks in Asian Minor 1099- Fall of Jerusalem from Fatimids (Shi’ites) by the crusaders 1144- Muslims conquer one of crusader settlements: Edessa 1184- Ad Abolendam- decree penalty for heresy and direct bishops to actively seek them out 1187- Battle of Hattin- Saladin vs crusader states, S wins and conquers Jerusalem 1204- The Fourth Crusade 1208- Albigensian (Medieval) Crusade: Innocent calls for full crusade against Cathars (after 4 crusade in 1204) - Earn property with each heretic found, spiritual incentive - French Kings took control of S. France= gain territory 1212- Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa- crucade force led by all Iberian monarchs won against Andalusi (Muslims) 1214- Battle of Bouvines- PA won against King John (lost control of Normandy+ Anjou, English nobles revolted) 1215- Magna Carta- Idea that king can’t govern arbitrarily and should have input/ consensus from subjects - Fourth Lateran Council- church council formalize major church doctrine - Xtian must make confession and take communion once a year, priest must educate all members of parish, change consanguinity (can’t marry w/in 4 degrees of kinship), new restrictive legislation against Jews 14 C- centralization falls apart, Church falls apart 1328- 100 years war starts b/c F wants French king but heir is English 1348- the Black Death (Bubonic Plague) --- Great Famine happened before (around 1200s) 1453- End of 100 Years War, French win, English lose - Sultan Mehmed II lay siege to Constantinople 1455- War of the Roses (and Gutenberg Bible printed using printing press) 1492- Granada conquered, decreed all Jews had to leave, convert, or die, Christopher Columbus 1517- Martin Luther’s 95 Theses, Protestant Reformation PEOPLE Bernard of Clairvaux- embarked on preaching tour urge people go on 2 crusade nd King Conrad III of Germany and Louis XII of France led 2 Crusade Salah ad- Din Yusuf- leader united Mthlim Syria under Egypt Pope Innocent III- (1204) call for 4 crusade- French nobles responds (no monarchs) - Believed Pope had right to do whatever he wanted (church and secular powers) - Want to protect Xtiandom from phobias (Jews) through education of orthodothfaith Emperor Alexius IV Angelus- wanted to be restored to Byz throne so helped 4 Crusaders - Crowned new emperor after attack Constantinople, but went back on promise, crusaders besiege again St. Dominic- founded Dominicans b/c church’s unsuccessful preaching missions Peter Waldo- founded Waldensians King John of England- vassal/ enemy of French King Philip who capitalized on his dual role as king/ lord, left with little money to kingdom, lose territory to France - Gave England to Pope in exchange for defense against revolts - First to sign Magna Carta Emperor Frederick II- guardian was Pope, but [conflicts over Italy] Pope supported his rival for the HRE b/c didn’t want him to rule Sicily and HRE, then supported Frederick after new ruler invaded Sicily - HRE declined after his death, German’s strength grew King Fernando III of Leon Castile- united Leo and Castile after border dispute Blanche of Castile, Queen of France- staved off assaults on French crown from Engl and French nobles - Ruled while son was away, Turned over unified/ centralized country to son: - King Louis IX of France- establish performance reviews for bailiffs, agents to hear complaints against royal officials, gave advice to other kings King I of England, “Longshanks” used parliament to expand king’s power (clarify/ create laws, popular consent by parliament) St. Francis of Assisi- found Franciscans, preached in cities and gained attention, voluntary poverty, more relevant to poor St. Clare of Assisi- founded Poor Clares (female Franciscan order), no leaving monastery, no preach or beg King Edward III of England- related to French king other through mother, still a child King Philip IV of France, “The Fair” - impose tax on French clergy (not on good terms w/ Pope), peak of French royal power - Pope Boniface VIII decreed only church can tax clergy, but imprisoned by Philip’s troops and died, no other Popes acted out after Wat Tyler- leader of English Peasants Revolt, assassinated King Louis XI of France- Spider King- assign marriage, prestigious administration (loyalty), assassinated criminals Queen Isabel I of Castile + King Fernando II of Aragon- unified force - Wanted to complete the Reconquista (conquer kingdom of Granada), Anti- Jewish sentiment (forced conversions) - Xtian heretics- still practice Judaism after baptized Ottoman Turks- conquered Constantinople, claim Byz Empire= Ottoman Empire, not friendly to merchants TERMS Templars- Solomon’s temple (headquarters) Hospitallers ran a hospital that pilgrims could live in Muslim Syria- unified combination (Domascus+…) Reconquista- expansion of Xtian kingdoms of Iberia Waldensians- heretic group- live off of charity, travel to preach, translate Bible into the Vernacular, preach about what you read, disobeyed Pope Cathars/ Albigensians- heretic group- Dualism (good God, bad God), live in poverty like Jesus, deny authority of church Usury- lending money at interest (Jews- unethical) Blood libel- Jews kidnap and crucify children to mock Jesus’ crucifixion Chimerical- anti- Jewish attitude Consanguinity- incest Troubadours- sung lyrical poetry (of all social classes, genders) Courtly love- high class romantic relationship (nobles)- felt for someone else’s wife Romanesque- big buildings/ cathedrals around 11 C th Barrel vault, groin vault, pointed arch - Flying buttress- cascade- like, carries weight of ceiling out Iberian Cortes- earliest phenomenon of parliamentary institutions (congress- product of middle ages) - Estates- represented groups in a Cortes/ parliament (nobles, clergy, town representatives) - Parliaments- 3 times a year king has to talk with subjects about what’s happening with kingdom Communes (independent Italian republics)
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