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HIST Final study guide- Important People, Terms and Battles.docx

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University of Maryland
HIST 111
Janna Bianchini

Normandy= France Fatimids= Muslim Seljuk Turks (sunnis) Cathars & Waldensians Dominicans & Franciscans People Emma of Normandy- daughter of Duke of Normandy - Married King Aethelred II of England, “the Unready”- lost control of England to Danes - King Canute of England- married her to legitimize claim to throne, took back control, followed Anglo Saxon customs, Xtian - King Edward of England “the Confessor”- Emma’s son with Aethelred, sent him to live in Normandy where safe, introduce Norman customs to English court o King William I of England, “the Conqueror”- AS excluded from power, England still Norman, used papal sanction to enforce authority over vassals (for Norman expedition) o Harold Godwinson- AS, Edward changed mind, wanted to give kingdom to him Seljuk Turks- dominate central Muslim power in East (Aabasid caliphate) , extended west, conquer Jerusalem (was under Muslim control) and conquer Fatimids - Attacked Xtian pilgrims on pilgrimage and won against Byz Empire Emperor Alexius I Comnenus- Byz emperor, ask West for help (Pope not HRE) - Pope Urban II- in Clermont gave speech to urge people to go on crusade (spiritual benefits, ~pilgrimage), spoke all around France o Help reduce violence in Europe, better to fight Muslims abroad Prince Bohemond of Taranto (Norman)- nobles lead crusade b/c kings not wealthy enough - Alexius only wanted small military reinforcement so unhappy with massive army, asked to swear oath to conquer and return any formerly Byz land to him o Made deal with Muslim leader for their escape so crusaders can’t loot - Conquered Antioch and stayed, armies besiege Jerusalem, ignored Alexius - Fatmids supported Crusaders against Turks, let settle in Syria, but still attacked Jerusalem Peter Bartholomew- find the Holy Lance and charge victoriously at Turkish army, but he died and was discredited King Louis VII of France- centralizing French king, best marriage startegies - Married Eleanor of Aquitaine- inherit lots of land, gained power over nobles (traveled to assert authority), stressed liege lordship - Son, King Philip II Augustus of France- cements growing authority and recover rights to king by creating bureaucracy of bailiffs King Henry II of England- inc king’s legal jurisdiction at expense of nobles and church - Take over bishop’s judicial power (conflict w/ freedom of church) - Archbishop Thomas Becket- oppose Henry, was murdered, became saint, and Henry kept power - Married Eleanor of Aquitaine who united Acquitaine w/ English crown  Angevin Empire o Controlled more of France than French king Queen Teresa of Portugal- split Portugal from Leon and Castile into independent kingdom Aristotle- medieval science, logic, philosophy, work was preserved Ibn Rushd- Iberian Muslim philosopher, study natural science Moses ben Maimon- Jewish, wrote Aristotelian philosophy w/ Jewish belief, help Xtians reconcile Aristotle & Bible Bernard of Clairvaux- leader of backlash movement against scholasticism- can’t understand god through reason, put scholastics on trial for heresy Anselm of Bec/ Canterbury- archbishop, studies in (Bec) French monastery, joins scholasticism, Peter Abelard- French, wants students to logically solve problems, charged with heresy, w/o logic faith= ignorance Hildegard of Bingen- became abbos, founded own convent, Terms Pilgrimage- journey to holy site/ shrine, WE  Jerusalem Deus lo volt- “God wills it” Pogroms- massacre of Jews Antioch- modern Syria (where St. Peter was bishop) Holy Lance- spear that pierced Jesus’ side on cross Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem- after crusaders besiege Jerusalem Burghers- townspeople, new class of free people (after lords promote towns and give privileges to townspeople) Guild- group who practice certain trades organize into regular buyers (prof standards, specific req to join) Lord- King- god appointed king, of hierarchal monarchy Liege lordship- can be vassal to many lords, but only 1 who is liege lord (takes precedence) Bailiffs- non- noble royal officials, replace local nobles as king’s agents Iberia- Portugal, Leon, Castile, Navarre, Aragon Cataluna- work w/ each other through alliance marriage 12 C Renaissance- revival of classical learning, more texts for Roman scholars, intellectual endeavors - Church wants educated roman bureaucracy, better schools (for all men), University- guild for education - Rhetoric- art of speaking/ writing well - Dialectic- art of argumentation Roman Law- all secular authority from Emperor (growth in study of law) Canon Law- church’s legal system Scholasticism- use logic to systematize/ unify existing thought (existence of god, mystery of trinity) Faith seeking understanding- intellectual inquiries from basis of faith, not prove truths just deepen understanding Battles Battle of Hastings- Godswinson (AS) and William (Norman) armies meet and William wins - William had cavalry and AS only h
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