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HIST Midterm Breakdown.docx

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University of Maryland
HIST 111
Janna Bianchini

Augustus Caesar- first roman emperor 312- Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity Arius- priest: The Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit - Arians- God is the uncreated/ eternal Father, the Son not eternal - Catholics- argue that both were eternal 325- Council of Nicea: Constantine decided in favor of Catholics, Arianism was heresy Manicheans- dualist religion (Goodness and Evil gods), material things are bad Constantinople- Constantine created from Byzantium Take Aways 1. Major reason for success of RE was use of impersonal power 2. Constantine single handedly changed religious path, Catholicism only one sect among variety of other religions and other forms of Xtianity 3. At Council, established that emperor has control over Xtian church (personnel and theology) Romulus Augustus- imprisoned by Odoacer 400s- Eastern Empire more advanced, wealthy 395- Emperor Theodosius dies, left co- emperors in E and W (never politically reunited) Visigoths- western, killed Roman emperor, settled on Danube - Alaric- King of Visigoths Ostrogoths- eastern Goths in Italy Vandals- dominated land and took real authority, but dind’t touch Roman institutions/ administrations, called themselves Roman subjects 476- overthrow of Romulus Augustulus~ fall of Roman empire Odoacer- commander of German missionaries, claimed King of Roman Province of Italy [didn’t destroy Roman culture] Byzantine Empire- eastern RE, survives E/W Division becomes more pronounced after 476 - Politically- E & W no long part of single empire - Economically- West is still much less developed - Culturally- difference btwn barbarians and eastern romans Take Aways 1. Roman empire did not fall, only the Western roman empire “fell” but Roman culture, institutions and rule by Roman elites survived 2. Two halves of Roman Empire are increasingly divided from each other by political, economic, and cultural diffs Five Patriarchs: Bishops of Rome, Jerusalem, Alexandria (Egypt) Antioch, Constantinople Pope Leo I- persuaded Huns to not attack, acquire secular role - Sought to convert everyone to save them 451 Council of Chalcedon: decided that patriarch of Constantinople was 2 in ecclesiastical hierarchy, and Pope in Rome was superior - St. Peter first apostle and subsequent bishops are his successors - Bishop of Rome sets all Xtian Doctrine, emperor only protects church - Bishop of rome is leader of universal Xtian church b/c built on Peter Pope Gregory the Great I- strict asceticism, forced into Pope position (590) elected the abbot/ abbess - Pastoral care, “the servant of the servants of God” Rule of St. Benedict- guide for monastic living for regular clergy Take Aways 1. Catholic Church takes over from empire in west, Roman senatorial elites become bishops to preserve their influence, Popes are standing up to Barbarian invaders when Emperor wouldn’t, and gradually being Roman becomes same as being Catholic Xtian 2. Rise of monasticism in west represented important new form of piety, created new group in Xtian social order: regular clergy (joining laity and secular clergy) 3. Gregory the Great promoted idea that leaders have spiritual responsibilities to their people and that attention to common welfare was among their main obligations. Merovingians- Germanic tribe dynasty, King of the Franks King Clovis I (482-511)- establish Frankish power in Gaul, bring Merovingian dynasty to prominence - Access Roman system of taxation, means of funding - Mer. Ruled for 250 years, then tax system weakened Gallo- Romans- romans of Gaul, Clovis converts to Catholicism to get their support Emperor Justinian- wanted to take land back from Barbarians in West and restore RE - Conquers vandals, put E/ W back into contact - 542- Plague of Justinian- bubonic plague outbreak spread to west from trade, inc divide btwn E/W Take Aways 1. Merovingians founded a long lasting and stable dynasty through a blend of Roman and Barbarian identities a. Above all- conversion to Catholicism 2. In the long term Justinian’s wars not only failed to erase the east/ west division of the Roman Empire, they also created a new cultural divide btwn Northern Europe and Southern/ Med Europe 3. Ties between E and W changed in nature and extent, but never ceased completely, while W stayed interested in rich and advanced E, the E had little reason to reciprocate interest Carolingians- successful military dynasty, blend Romanness, Frankishness, Xtianity Charles Martel- becomes mayor of the palace in 8thC Pippin the Short- Martel’s son, rules through puppet king then kicks Mer. King out w/ Pope’s consent - First King of the Franks - Conquers Lombards attacking Pope and recognized as king Charlemagne (742- 814)- king of Franks, emperor of Romans, Pippin’s son - Breakthrough in gov, intellectual culture - Conquest- conquered N. Pagans and Saxons - Carolingian Renaissance- preserve ancient classical manuscripts, attract scholars, uniform practices, Rule of St. Benedict used in monasteries - Governance- King had role in church (ran and appoint bishops), uniform coinage, use imperial agents 800- Pope Leo III crowns Char emperor of Romans [precedent that Pope can crown emperor] Empress Irene of Byzantium Emperor Louis the Pious- Char’s son and crowned by him - Nobles/ agents not as loyal when Char died b/c personal power [indvl success] - Then he had 4 sons to divide empire, but civil war arose btwn them 843- Treaty of Verdun- succession resolved, split Europe up - Emperor Lothar- central middle kingdom - Louis the German- King of East Franks - Charles the Bald- king of West Franks Take Aways 1. Carolingian renaissance preserves all kinds of classical text that otherwise would’ve been lost, becomes basis for later Renaissances 2. However briefly Xtian Europe had nearly been united again under single empire, echoes of Western roman empire , but Pope Leo III establish that Pope had power to make emperors 3. Char’s recreation of W Empire meant that in medieval imagination he was the ideal king 4. All of power couldn’t be sustained from generation to generation, and political fragmentation this caused left empire vulnerable to outside attacks Bedouin- nomad warrior group, Pagan, tribal ‘umma- community of Muslim believers Muhammad- born in Mecca, ordered by Angel Gabriel to recite lines he revealed, built religious community and preached monotheism (recorded in Qur’an) 622- hijra- the journey Muslim conquered Jerusalem in 638, Byz rule Muslim Night Journey- Muhammad’s journey to heaven in Jerusalem Dome of the Rock- where Muhammad began journey, shrine built around it 711- nearly total Muslim conquest of Villigoth kingdom Caliph- united under single authority- secular and religious authority - Syria held by Umayyad Caliphate People of the Book- monotheists (Jews and Xtian) recognized as dhimmi- protected subjects Shi’a movement- opposition members Shiites had grievances beyond ethnicity 661 Ali the caliph murdered - Ethnic arabs also disliked Ali, Shiites’ allies Sunni- supporters of Umayyad Shi’iter- Ali’s supporters 750- Abu’l ‘Abbas formed army from Persia and defeated Umayyads and became new caliph Abbasid Dynasty- dissuade Shiites beliefs Al- Andalos- prince runs and sets up kingdom with Anadlusi citizens Take aways • The Arab conquest established the Umayyad Caliphate by around 700. This is the product of another kind of ethno-genesis that blended Bedouin and Islamic society and culture. • The Abbasid overthrow of the Umayyad Caliphate exploited the religious and political split between Sunnis and Shi’ites, but the Abbasids didn’t stay loyal to their Shi’ite followers once they were in power. • After the Abbasids came to power in the East, al-Andalus became an independent Umayyad kingdom, and Muslim dominion would endure in al-Andalus for the rest of the middle ages. Later 8 - 9 C trade reversing- more vigorous in West than East - West- population growth, climate improve, inc livestock, large scale trade Vikings- Scandinavia pagan people - Trade on Northern arc, trade raw goods for manufactured goods - Turned to piracy b/c population boom, political fragmentation, not Xtian (attack monasteries), technological breakthroughs (longship), piracy needs trade (impoverished trade) Attack Frankland (under Carolingians) during civil war among sons Took bribes from kings and people, drain wealth and land Duke Rollo of Normandy- Carolingian king gives dukedom to Rollo to not attack Normans- north men of Normandy Take Aways 1. Under Charlemagne commerce revived in W Europe, part of what drew Vikings to attack 2. W Europeans had to invent new ways to counter Vikings superior technology (bridges, naval forces), had to adapt to permanent Viking presence England under rule by 7 kingdoms (Anglo Saxons) All conquered except for Wessex King Alfred of England “The Great”- led last English resistance - 878- Battle of Edington defeats Vikings and dominate kingdoms, convert Danish king to Xtianity - Defensive programs: serve in the army (fyrd), build forts/ fortresses (burh) w/ permanent soldier, build bridges and navy - Reform justice system: literate judges, decide cases based on laws not threats, revive latin Danelaw- portion of England under Dane’s rule End of 10thC almost all of Britain under control of Wessex (king of the English) Umayyad in Iberia- under rulers of spain, the visigoths - Asturias- northwest kingdom, area in Pyrenees mountain so diff to conquer - Abd al- Rahman- king of Al Andalos- took title of emir (king) in city of Cordoba Muslims conquered- reco
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