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HIST 201- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 15 pages long!)


Department
History
Course Code
HIST 201
Professor
Robert Chiles
Study Guide
Midterm

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UMD
HIST 201
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

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The West
Manifest Destiny
Nation needed to find ways to get to the west and had to pass through the Great Plains
Was dry and had nothing so it was given to the Indians
Had to take wagon trains to get to the far west
The Oregon Trail
Was very hard to travel
Railroads were constructed to make travel to the west easier
Generous incentives were given to spur the construction of the railroads as is was unfeasible to
do it alone
Gave Union Pacific and Central Pacific land and low interest loans as an incentive to
build the railroads
Finished railroad was 1700 miles in length
Made possible through cheap labor by the Chinese (west), Irish and Freedmen
(east)
Credit Mobilier Scandal (1872)
Had gone on through the 1860’s
UP created a dummy company (Credit Mobilier) to sell themselves materials and got the
money back by sending the receipts to Congress
Bribed a good portion of Congress
However, most viewed the railroads positively and was focused on the progress
Technological progress and trading with Asia
West opened up to White settlement
Initial settlers became propagandists and selled the West to the East
Stories about how lush the growing was and how generous the mortgages was
Homestead Act
Anyone 21 or above who is the head of a family could claim for a small fee claim
a small tract of land from the government. After 5 years, could “prove up” and the
land became yours.
Cannot be a Confederate
Many people saw this as an opportunity to live well for themselves
Challenges:
No trees for building or fuel for winter
Very dry, no water on surface
Need to drill deep for water
Difficulties actually made life on the Prairies a challenge
Plains have been populated by Plains Indians
Plains Indians had to move again, led to conflict
Bear River massacre
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200 Indians killed by US Army
Sand Creek massacre
105 women and children killed
Conflict was never coordinated, was on the whim of frontier military officers
Peace through a military commission
Made reservations for the plains indians
Many tribes resisted being moved onto reservations
Custer’s Last Stand
Cheyenne and Sioux surrounded Custer at Little Bighorn
Reservations and the Dawes Act
Found gold in the badlands and government took over reservations
Even reservations were not enough for the United States
Dawes Act
Get rid of reservation system and be divided up into homesteads and be given to
individual indian households. Extra money used for indian education
Notion of land ownership was foreign to the plains indians
Were nomadic and did not have a permanent settlement
Had communal ownership
“Education” aimed to strip indians of their culture
Wounded Knee Massacre
Sioux tried to reject government actions and started to arm themselves
Government suppressed them and left masses dead in the snow
Buffalo massacre
Were killed as they were in the way of the railroads and were trampling fields
Buffalo hunting was encouraged amidst some fears of wiping out the buffalo from the
earth
Population went down from 6 million to 365
Gold Rush brought permanent settlement in the west (California)
300,000 people by 1870
Brought in a large Chinese population to San Fransisco
Laws set up to marginalize Chinese were passed in California
Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act due to increasing public protest
Population increase in California allowed people to grow fruits that cannot be grown in
the east due to its Mediterranean climate
Increased production of raw materials
Railroads allowed beef to be transported into the east
Also facilitated the development of cattle drives and cowboys
Ended after cattle were contained into ranges instead of open ranges
Beef soon became an American staple
Chicago functioned as America’s Heart
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