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INST 335 Study Guide - Spring 2019, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - United States, Starkist, Globalization


Department
Information Studies
Course Code
INST 335
Professor
Sushanna
Study Guide
Midterm

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INST 335

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INST335 Lecture 1: Principles of Management
Thomas Edison once quipped, “There is a way to do it better—find it.” This simple challenge is at
the heart of the study and practice of management. Most of us have pondered better ways to
manage others at work or considered ways to manage tasks better at home. As you’ve visited or
worked at restaurants, coffee shops, schools, or other organizations, it’s likely you’ve
encountered many instances where different interactions with individuals would have led to a
better experience. By simply reading the first paragraph of this chapter you have, at some level,
managed the challenge of procrastination that plagues many individuals. Whether you’re an evil
genius plotting a scheme of world domination or a benevolent nonprofit leader hoping to change
the world for good, you need management to continually master organizational challenges.
Management is the art and science of managing others. Knowledge of management will help you
identify and develop the skills to better manage your career, relationships, and the behavior of
others in organizations. A manager’s primary challenge is to solve problems creatively, and
management The art and science of accomplishing individual and organizational goals
through the efforts of individuals and groups using planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
often refers to “the art of getting things done through the efforts of other people.” The
principles of management The concepts managers use in an effort to accomplish
management goals. are the means by which you work to get things done through others
individually, in groups, or in organizations. Formally defined, the principles of management are
the activities that “plan, organize, and control the operations of the basic elements of [people],
materials, machines, methods, money, and markets, providing direction and coordination, and
giving leadership to human efforts, so as to achieve the sought objectives of the enterprise.” For
this reason, principles of management have been discussed for decades using a the P-O-L-C
framework, which refers to the management functions of planning, organizing, leading, and
controlling. While managers do not necessarily spend all their time managing, everyone
employed in an organization is affected by management principles, processes, policies, and
practices. Consequently, finding a “way to do it better” is a challenge that helps all individuals to
meet their personal and professional goals.
Types of Managers
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The idea of a manager relates to both a position in an organization as well as the nature of
different roles and responsibilities. Figure 1.3 summarizes classic and contemporary views
of organizations with respect to managerial roles. In contrast to the traditional view of
management where the manager is seen as the “boss” who wields unquestioned power over
employees, the contemporary view casts top managers as individuals that support and serve
other managers and employees through a process called empowerment just as the
organization ultimately exists to serve its customers and clients. EmpowermentThe
process of enabling or authorizing an individual to think, behave, take action, and control
work and decision making in autonomous ways. is the process of enabling or authorizing an
individual to think, behave, take action, and control work and decision-making in
autonomous ways.
A number of different types of managers can be found in organizations. Top managers are
responsible for developing the organization’s strategy and acting as a steward for its vision
and mission. An example is found in Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella outlining their new
mission to “empower every person and every organization on the planet to achieve more.”
Functional managers are responsible for the efficiency and effectiveness of a specific area of
the business, such as accounting or marketing. Supervisory managers, or team managers,
are responsible for coordinating a subgroup of a particular division or a team composed of
members from different parts of the organization.
Line and staff managers serve two distinct functions. A line manager, often called a product
or service manager, leads a team that contributes directly to the products or services the
organization creates. For example, a line manager at Apple Inc. might be responsible for the
production, marketing, and profitability of the Apple watch. In contrast, a staff manager
leads a function that creates indirect inputs. For example, finance and accounting are
critical organizational functions but do not typically provide a clear input into the final
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product or service a customer buys. Instead, they serve a supporting role. A project
manager is responsible for the planning, execution, and closing of a specific project. For
example, the HGTV show Fixer Upper depicts the husband and wife team of Chip and
Joanna Gaines (and their company, Magnolia Homes) as they transform numerous homes
in Waco, Texas. Project managers are often found in construction, architecture, consulting,
computer networking, telecommunications, and software development.
A general manager is responsible for managing a clearly identifiable revenue-producing
unit, such as a store, business unit, or product line. Typically, general managers make
decisions across various functions and have rewards tied to the performance of the entire
unit. General managers take direction from their top executives and must first understand
the executives’ overall plan for the company. Then they set specific goals for their own
departments to fit in with the plan. The general manager of production, for example, might
have to increase certain product lines and phase out others. Moreover, general managers
must describe their goals clearly to their support staff. Supervisory managers see that the
goals are met.
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