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KNES 293 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: 1936 Summer Olympics, Olympic Games, Muscular Christianity

Course Code
KNES 293
Michael Friedman
Study Guide

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1. Describe the structure and purposes of British international sport. How were these
similar and different from the totalitarian versions of international sport practiced in Nazi
Germany and the Soviet Union?
a. British international sport-exported their cultural traditions and games to their
colonies around the world in order to keep peace with the British and for them to
communicate and agree with themselves, but then the focus was more on class
and women.
a.i. The prejudices were reproduced around the world. Upper class started to
play certain sports that lower classes couldn’t play.
b. Nazi Germany- commitment to physical culture, celebrated man like the British,
created the new Nazi Soviet man.
b.i. Exclusionary
b.ii. Critical of growth and commercializing sports among the working class
b.iii. Promoted mass participation in sports- for fitness and to get in shape for
military and get in their physical exercise
c. Sport was for elite to watch
d. Exported cultural traditions into games- sexism, classism, and racism
2. How did Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union and Great Britain use sports within the conduct
of their foreign policy?
a. Britain- trade and conformity
b. Used the Commonwealth Games
b.i. Involved commonwealth and commons
b.ii. White supremacy
b.iii. Was domestic
c. Nazi Germany- for the fitness and to be elite and to promote army
c.i. Used the Berlin Olympics to make them look good
d. Soviet Union- sponsored athletes to show what life under the USSR is
d.i. Spartakia- own Olympics kind of- had people compete in different sports
3. Discuss the traditions of the modern Olympics, their origins, and their purposes. In what
ways were the modern Olympics similar and different from the “Socialist Olympics”?
a. Modern Olympics-
a.i. Torch relay
a.ii. Five colors on flags- at least one color is on every countries’ flags
a.iii. Opening and closing ceremonies
b. Socialist Olympics
b.i. Less competitive games
b.ii. Mass participatory events
b.iii. Connects sport and larger community
4. What were the problems of the Olympic movement between 1920 and 1940? How did
the Olympics attempt to address issues surrounding inclusion and exclusion?
a. Very disorganized, creation of League of Nations was ineffective- spurred elite
interests in sports
b. Sport political contflict and struggles- had to accept women and accept
development in sports on a large scale.
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c. IOC had a degree of organization, but had a few contracditions with the NOC on
how to organize the teams and events
d. IOC established itself as primary authority and
5. How were the 1936 Berlin Olympics constructed as a “theater of power”? How did the
Games serve the interests of the Nazi Party?
a. “theater of power”- Germany had to make it seem like they had so much power
that they were in control and everything was perfect there because all eyes were
on them. The whole world knew what was happening and about the WWII, so
they had to make it seem like everything was ok. It was like a show that was put
b. The games served the interests of the Nazi party because they were able to show
their fit bodies, athletic abilities, and still enforce the rules. They made it seem
like everything was perfect there for the Olympics, but it was complete chaos, but
hidden chaos for those few weeks.
1. What were the activities and intentions of the YMCA in its early years?
a. Gathered for mutual support- religious people gathering together for the same
intentions and prayers and bible study. Their purpose was to help the men
understand their obligation and responsibility as Christians.
b. Wholesome young religious men- to keep it religious- place to be pure
2. What was muscular Christianity and how did it relate to the development of YMCAs?
a. Muscular Christianity-
a.i. After the social/religious component, the psychical activity was added
because there was a need.
a.ii. Promote healthy and “physical vigor and health, separate from the
temptations and vice”
a.iii. Safety valve- people were working all day, so sport was great safe place
for Christians to go
a.iv. Physical activity can help religious observance
a.iv.1. To restore the mind and body for work
b. Most YMCAs were in church buildings, but in the civil war, not one of them had
a gym. But by 1890, 400 YMCAs hired supervisors of physical activity- growth
of building and professionally trained directions transformed the YMCA into
what it is today.
3. Why did muscular Christian advocates originally argue for YMCAs to have gymnasiums
and allow for more physical activities for young men?
a. Thought it would be a healthy outlet
b. Made it known that physical activity was needed- surveyed and through scientific
survey of the moral and physical dangers facing young men in the city, which
made it apparent the need for fitness.
4. What was the connection between the increased professionalization of YMCA physical
directors and the increased use of games at YMCAs at the turn of the century?
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