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KNES 293 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Jesse Owens, Nigger, New Negro

Course Code
KNES 293
Michael Friedman
Study Guide

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Reading Guide – Topic 2
McDonagh & Pappano
1. In what ways can sports be thought of as “performance theater”?
a. The player does what he is supposed to do, like the actor in a play, but what he
does off the court is similar to what the actor does off the stage- it truly has an
impact on the greater society socially and politically
b. Millions of people follow it- more than a theater
c. Both focus on the body, skill, training, and experience
d. Sport is drama
e. The spectators embody the goals and the social classes- audience have a say
f. Entertainment
2. Explain how sport helped define and reinforce masculinity at the end of the 19th
century/start of the 20th century in relation to national identity, immigration,
industrialization and urbanization.
a. National identity- gave them national identity and the understanding of what it
means to be an American because it taught them morals. Men were the rules of
society. Taught values and stabilizing principles.
b. Immigration- Sports taught them to be giving, understanding, inclusive, and
stabilizing practices for me.
c. Industrialization- leaders thought that sports can address the other problems in
society because it yelled self discipline and other principles. It gave them honor
and morality that was expected of a man. Because of industrialization, sports gave
them an outlet to meet new people and interact in a healthy manner, and giving
them skills to live in modern society.
d. Urbanization- many immigrants came so cities became big and then parks and
everything developed.
3. How did science justify ideas of female weakness? How were these “invented barriers”
institutionalized within sport and physical activity?
a. Menstruating is impure. Women are week and just a container for everything else
and men the makers.
b. Men played football and other sports that accentuated their masculinity and
strength over women.
c. Even when women started to play men’s sports, they had different rules, dress,
and expectations.
4. What were the kinds of sport acceptable for women? Under what conditions?
a. Sports that accentuated their femininity and acknowledged their reproductive
b. Sports that didn’t exert too much energy or too much movement in order to keep
the uterus safe- tennis, croquet.
c. They had different rules, dress, and expectations than men if they were to play the
same sport.
5. How were clothing and attire used to control and marginalize female athletes?
a. The clothing for women’s sports mattered just as much as their performance- it
was to make the women physically pleasing as well, but also restricted their
movement- heavy skirts and corsets.
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