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[KNES 370] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 61 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
KNES 370
Professor
Du
Study Guide
Midterm

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UMD
KNES 370
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Fundamental basis of motor development
Definitions:
Constraint: a property of the organism, environment or task that limits or
sets boundaries on movement
Coordination: the spatial and temporal relationship between movement
constituents
Fine motor skills: manipulative skills that involve the small muscles of the
hands
Gross motor skills: motor skills that involve the large, force-producing
muscles of the trunk, arms and legs
Manipulative skills: motor skills in which the purpose is to act on or with
objects in the environment (e.g., dribbling a ball, hammering)
Phylogenetic motor skills: those motor skills that are common to all members
of the species (e.g., walking)
Posture: maintenance of a desired orientation to the environment
Transport task: a movement task in which the body moves from one location
to another
Motor development
Motor development: the change in motor behavior over the lifespan and the
processes that underlie the change
As life goes on movement behavior changes and transforms drastically
Motor development focuses on an individuals movement behavior
o Movement behavior results from an interaction of many subsystems
(ex: perception and cognition)
Definition of focus
Broad terms motor development encompasses all movement behavior
Movement with a purpose is the focus of study
A movement goal achieved optimally is skillful
Skillful movements are:
o Efficient: the mover accomplishes the task with the least effort
Measured biomechanically, physiologically, and
psychologically
o Versatile in adapting to changing task demands
Can quickly adjust to changes in the environment
o Maximum certainty: the skill is repeated reliably
Three broad categories of movement purposes or goals: posture, transport
and manipulation
o Posture: maintain the body in particular orientation in the
environment
o Transport: movements that change the body’s location
o Manipulation: movement purpose is to act on or with objects in the
environment
Determinants of motor development
Organism constraints
o Include structural and functional constraints
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Structural: aspects of the individual’s physical being (body
shape and size)
Functional: physiological state of the body’s systems (nervous
and cardiovascular systems)
Influenced by experience and provide a more
individualistic developmental path
o Organism constraints are those properties of the individual that shape
the motor behavior seen across the lifespan
Environmental constraints
o Arise outside the organism
o Environment consists of the physical surroundings, sociocultural area
of the developing organism
o Gravity, temperature, light, and supporting surface
o Changing the environment can change the behavior
Task constraints
o Requirements of the specific task or purpose that the mover seeks to
accomplish
o Defined as a unique source of constraints
o Include accuracy and speed requirements
o Can be imposed by the sport’s rules
o Not only found in the movement goals but in the tools/equipment of
the task
The process of developing motor skills
Contemporary theory explains motor development as a dynamic process in
which a motor behavior emerges from the many constraints that surround
behavior
Changes in motor behavior are not affected by a genetic code that prescribes
the behavior, but changes in the constraints
Movement emerges from constraints, then there will be a similarity in the
organism, environment and/or task constraints
The major periods of motor skill development
Six major periods:
o Reflexive period
o Preadapted period
o Fundamental motor skills period
o Context-specific motor skills period
o Skillful period
o Compensation period
Progression between stages depend on constraints
Periods characterize movement after birth
Reflexive period:
o Begins at birth and lasts about 2 weeks
o Movement is primarily involuntary and is either spontaneous or
reflexive in nature
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