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KNES 400 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Public Health, Socioeconomic Status, Determinant


Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
KNES 400
Professor
Dr. Shannon Jette
Study Guide
Final

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KNES 400

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KNES400: Foundations of Public Health in Kinesiology
- Usually trend is the more you spend, the higher life expectancy
- US spends the most money, but its life expectancy is lowest
o On avg spends twice as much as the other countries, but near the bottom of life
expectancy
o Paradox
Why this paradox
Dietless optimal diet
Educationlack of education about health
Health caretoo expensive, high costs
Built environmentconstructed our society to make moving
optional
High administrative costs
High pharmaceutical costsgovernment cannot negotiate
pharmaceutical costs, medicare
Defensive medicinedoctors have high insurance premiums,
diagnostic tests to make sure everything is correct
More interventiontend to go for surgery with the gray area
A lot spent on acute medicine
97% of health care spending is spent on medical costsother 3% on prevention (education,
guiding, physical activity)
75% of health care dollars goes toward chronic diseases,, more needs to go toward prevention
Disparities in Mortality by SES and Race/Ehtnicity
- Some populations do not do as well as others
- Racial ethnic
- Black have lower, Hispanic is highest
- More money you have, the longer you liveincome
Inequality leads to poorer health outocmes
- Physical activitiy helps with
- More affluent you are, more likely to engage in physical activity
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Health Paradox in the US: one of the lowest life expectances out of OCD
Over the 20th century, life expectancy in US and many parts of Europe increased about 30 years
(less than 50 to over 80 years old) and infant mortality rates dropped significantly
- Types of diseases changed as well
o Early 1900s- infectious diseases (pneumonia, turbuculis)
o End of 1900s- heart disease (more chronic), cancer, CV disease
- Greatest improvement in first half of 20th century largely because of vaccinations,
sanitation, improved nutritional standard, refrigeration, family planning
- Smaller gains in latter half of 20th century from advances in treatment in chronic
treatment and risk factors (smoking and inactive)
- Still debates over whether these improvements are due to the field of medicine or
public health
Ten Great Public Health Achievements
1. Vaccination
2. Motor vehicle safety
3. Safer workplaces
4. Control of infectious diseases
5. Decline in deaths for CHD and stroke
6. Safer and healthier foods
7. Healthier mothers and babies
8. Family planning
9. Fluoridation of drinking water
10. Recognition of tobacco use as a health hazard
PH in relation to medicine?
- PH is about prevention and Medicine focuses on cure (after sickness)
- PH and medicine when they became institutionalizede didt hae istitutio of
medicine until late 1800s- when they were new and emerging fields, they were very
much interlinked, and started to become separate later one
- PH focuses on population health (groups) while medicine focuses on individuals (one on
one)
- PH is typically understood as socially and politically driven and medicine is more about
objective science and research
- Medicine is based on biomedical and reductionist model (breaking down the body)
whereas PH looks at ill health at the bigger picture (social and environmental
determinants), PH narrowed its focus to look at lifestyle factors and individual behaviors
- Divide recentlate 1800s both were new and developing professions but medicine
grew in dominance beginning in 1920s and by 1950s, biomedical paradigm dominant
- PH
o Prevention, population, social conditions, social justice/political
- Medicine
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