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KNES 464 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Adenosine Triphosphate, Mitochondrion, Glycolysis


Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
KNES 464
Professor
Dr. Sarah Kuzmiak-Glancy
Study Guide
Final

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KNES 464

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Lecture 1
Energy Sources for Muscular Activity
ATP: adenosine triphosphate
- 3 phosphates- high energy bond, when that bond is broken, we release energy, which is
the energy our cells use to do work
- ATP > ADP +Pi + energy
o This allows us to do work
o One phosphate group is broken off
o Delta G standardgives free energymeasure of how much work to do
Negative= release energy from system to surroundings
To reform ityou would have to input energy, so positive
- How much ATP do we have in our body?
o Less than ten seconds (2-4 seconds) of ATP in body, so have to resynthesize the
molecule so often when exercising
o Very limited stores
Sufficient for 2-4 seconds of intense activity
Have to continue to resynthesis
o Resynthesis is crucial
o Why do’t e store ore of it?
Big and heavy to store, so would be carrying around a lot of mass
- How much do we need to run a marathon?
o Marathon runner Meb Keflezighi weights 55 kg and VO2 max is about 80
ml/kg/min
o He turns over 180 lbs of ATP, which is so muchhave to resynthesize it because
we cant store it
o REYNTHEISS IS CRUCIAL
Resynthesizing ATP
- Three primary sources for ATP resynthesis
o Phosphocreatine (PCr)
1-10 seconds, greatest rate of ATP
do’t at to use all the ATP eause o’t have any left over
1 rep max
o Anaerobic glycolysis
10-60 seconds
byproduct lactate
100-400 meters
o Aerobic oxidative phosphorylation
60 seconds and beyond
based on mitochondria- do’t hae liited supply—just based on the
fuels we store
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- when start exercisingall of them give you energy- just depends which can provide the
most ATP fastest
o PCrstarts at 45 and then depletes quickly
o Glycolytic- starts at 0 and goes up quickly and then depletes
o Aerobicstarts at 0 and increases with time
- At onset of exercisewhich of the thre systems provides greatest rate of ATP
resynthesis?
o PCr
o Get energy from everything at the onset, but PCr is just the highest
o GET THE PICS FROM SLIDES
Phosphocreatine (PCr)
- Dominates ATP resynthesis
o Time: 1-10 seconds
o Distance: 100 eters
- How does it work?
o Skeletal muscle breaking down ATP to ADP through ATPase as we contract the
sarcomeres
Breaks ATP to diphosphate molecule
We take advantage of creatine kinase (CK)phosphorylates a molecule
adds a phosphate group to the ADP
ATP breaks down into ADP and Pi, which releases energy for the muscle
to contract
Take the phosphate from PCr and the CK rephosphorylates ADP to ATP
because it releases energy
But to get ATP back, we need an energy input, which is provided by the
Creatine Phosphate reaction energy released to then rephosphorylate
ATP again
PCR is brok
Takes the ADP molecule (release the energy for the muscle to do work)
and then take the energy and the PCr
o PCR then runs out—that’s hy it oly lasts for  seods
o ADP + PCR through CK makes ATP and creatine
- How is PCr resynthesized?
o Phosphocreatine runs out
o Creatine gets its phosphate back from an ATP molecule, but does it with oxygen
from mitochondriaoxygen from mitochondria rephosphorylates creatine to get
creatine (through aerobic oxidative phosphorylation)
o ATP ADP then rephosphorylates from PCR for the next exercise bout
- What happens to PCr and Pi levels during exercise?
o PCr
Decrease because we took the phosphate for ATP
o Pi
Increases because breaking the phosphate off the ATP
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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