Phil209J Final Exam Study Guide

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Christopher Morris

In a paragraph or two, (1) characterize two of the following three concepts or doctrines as we have been using them in this class, showing that you understand them. Be sure (1a) to explain the relevant aspects of the concept or doctrine, and (1b) to mention relevant distinctions, (2) to give an example or two if this would be helpful, and (3) in an additional sentence or two, briefly explain how the concept or doctrine is relevant to the debates we have looked at during the course DOCTRINES: The Doctrine of Double Effect (Self Defence) For any act that with two effects, one good and one bad, the act is not prohibited if the following conditions are satisfied: (1) the act in itself is not impermissible, (2) the bad effect of the act is not the means to the good effect, (3) the bad effect is not intended, (4) the bad effect does not outweigh the good effect (proportionally) The Active/Passive Doctrine (Euthanasia) Although [the doctor] may not administer the lethal injection--that would be active euthanasia which is forbidden--he may withhold treatment and let the patient die sooner than he otherwise would. Supererogatory An act which it would be good to do, but not wrong not to do. Moral Standing An individual has moral standing if we believe that it makes a difference, morally, how that individual is treated, apart from the effects it has on others. (Possible ex. for (2): Doctor ensures the physical welfare for patients out of genuine concern for well-being) Select one of the following quotations. Explain what it says. What is the significance of the central ideas expressed for the broader debate to which the article contributes? How does the author propose to defend the claims he or she makes? Briefly indicate how the ideas are relevant to the debate about abortion. DEBATE ABOUT ABORTION QUOTES: “Procured abortion is the deliberate and direct killing, by whatever means it is carried out, of a human being in the initial phase of his or her existence, extending from conception to birth” - John Paul II Write a critical essay answering the following questions. (Note: one (1) of the following will be selected and you will be asked to write a critical essay addressing it. Remember that a critical essay does more than summarize material; it analyzes, evaluates, and attempts to say something of interest.) 6a. Is it ever permissible intentionally to kill a non-threatening innocent being with moral standing? “The life of righteous men preserves and forwards the common good, since they are the chief part of the community. Therefore it is in no way lawful to slay the innocent.” - Aquinas “I confirm that the direct and voluntary killing of an innocent human being is always gravely immoral.” - JPII “The deliberate decision to deprive an innocent human being of his life is always morally evil and can never be licit either as an end in itself or as a means to a good end.” - JPII Animals?
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