[PHSC 401] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (164 pages long!)

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PHSC 401
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Ancient Greece: religion and superstition still played a major role
Asclepius (ID term for exam)
Origins of cult of Asclepius:
cult: way of describing role that asclepius played in ancient greek world
one of many pantheon of gods that greeks believed in, so a particular group of
people who were aligned with/vowed allegiance to asclepius were referred to the
cult of asclepius
many accounts of how asclepius became a god
asclepius has an important ancestry, father was greek god apollo
who many considered the god of healing
apollo and immortal woman spent time together, and made asclepius
asclepius became to supercede apollo in the role of god of healing
asclepius (demi god, part mortal part god) was able to bridge the difference between
mortal and god
became god like figure because he wasn’t confined to the world of mortals or god
became a skilled healer
embraced and incorporated a lot of practices and traditions associated with folk
medicine and greek practices at the time as part of his medical therapies
cult coalesces because asclepius had a number of children who also became important
healers and symbols of health and healing
whole class of asclepian practitioners who served under asclepius became
representative of this group of doctors
· God bc of his extraordinary healing powers
· Learned medicine from a creature who was half man half hors
· Zeus feared he may disturb the power of nature
o Zeus killed Apollo with lightning
· Asclepius: closer to man than most gods
Epidaurus:
Healing sanctuary built in 400 BC to worship Asclepius
First hospital of western civilization
Those sick visited to be treated
Temples, baths, and the most impressive theatre in Greece were built
Festival in honor of Asclepius
Athletes and musicians would compete in contests
Hotels and gymnasiums built
Ancient greeks were turned to gods, physicians, amulets, and incantations when sick
Those seeking a cure would come to the sanctuary and make an offering
Often sweet cakes
Would fall asleep and have god induced dreams
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Where god Asclepius would heal them with advice or healing physically
Sometimes his dog would appear to heal and lick a wound
Miracles made in sanctuary of epidaurs
Woman : ambrosia from Athens was blind and came to Epidaurus
Didn’t think anyone could be cured by having a dream or having a serpent lick their toe
Confronted Asclepius; who cured her blind eye
Ancient stone tablets: listed the cures
Woman was pregnant for 5 years: eventually gave birth to a 5 year old after going to Asclepius
420BC: devastating plague wiped out 1/3 of population
healing sanctuaries sprouted up
Asclepius had sons and daughers who bec
Daughter of Asclepius - Higeia: preventative medicine
Worship lasted until 6th century AD
Christians set a church on top of the sanctuary put it in an acceptable human form
Buildings and Festivals
Healing and miracles
Asclepion at Cos
Importance of environment
Balance of air, water, and earth is perfenct
Sanctuary 4 km from town of cos on a hill
Site layed on avaton (most important building) found on 2nd terrace near Ionian temple of the
god
At top of the stairs on 3rd terrace: doric temple of Asclepius
All around grew tall cyrpus trees
Invoke memory of Apollo of the Cyprus trees
Nigus yallurus: general inspector of archeology: research about the sanctuary
“religion inseparately linked to healing art”
but Asclepius was purely spiritual and had no ideology
psychosomatic functioning of patients
efforts were to facilitate self healing
tried to awaken god like power of self defense hidden in every human being
in antiquity: followers of Asclepius: asclepiads
most famous one: Hippocrates: great physician in development of medicine and
evolution of doctors
plato: referred to hippocratse as asclepiad of cos
Self-Healing and Asclepiads
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