Thanks guys! I’ll close this and keep it for the final.
CHAPTER 1: Introduction
1. Explain what behavioral research is and why it is conducted.
Behavioral research is used to discover how people perceive the world, how they think
and feel, how they change over time, learn from their mistakes and interact with each
2. Review the limitations of “everyday science” and intuition for understanding
behavior, including the potential for committing the hindsight bias.
The limitations of “everyday science” and intuition for understanding behavior is that
this type of science/research is conducted informally leading to unwarranted/incorrect
conclusions, especially due to the fact that people have a tendency to think that they
could have predicted something that they probably could not have predicted.
3. Describe the scientific method is and explain why it is used by scientists.
The scientific method is the set of assumptions, rules and procedures that scientists use
to conduct research. It is used by scientists because it results in the accumulation of
4. Differentiate facts and values and explain how the values of scientists influence
their own research.
Values are personal statements (for example, abortion is wrong), whereas facts are
objective statements determined to be accurate through empirical study. That being
said, the values of scientists may influence why they do their research, how they study
it, whom they use as participants and how they interpret their data. Additionally, the
introduction and discussion section of a research report are relatively subjective and
involve values because they discuss the importance of the study and what should be
interpreted from it. In contrast, the methods and results sections are objective and
contain facts, not values.
5. Outline the goals of basic and applied research and indicate how they are related.
Basic research answers fundamental questions about behavior (i.e., practical
problems). Applied research investigates issues that have implications for everyday life
and provide solutions to everyday problems (i.e., depression and college performance)
Relation: Basic research provides underlying principles that can be used to solve
1 specific problems and applied research gives ideas for the kinds of topics that basic
research can study
For example: Research concerning the role of practice on memory for lists of
words is basic research, the results could someday be used to help children learn to
read which is applied research.
6. Summarize how a student can benefit by learning how to conduct and critically
evaluate scientific research.
In order to fully understand material in any behavioral science course, we need to
understand how and why the research we read about was conducted and what that
collected data means. Once we do this we can correctly intrepret results on our own.
7. Create a table showing the goals, advantages, and disadvantages of descriptive,
correlational, and experimental research.
Research Goals Advantages Disadvantages
Descriptive create a simple gives a basic picture of does not asses
snapshot of events what is occurring relationships
going on, answers between
questions about variables
the current state of because it
affairs. gives the entire
Correlation assessing Allows testing of expected can't conclude
relationships relationships between causal
between two or variables, investigates relationships
more variables naturally occurring between the DV
(any value that can behavior and can be used & IV
assume different to make predictions
Experimental assess the impact allows drawing conclusions many variables
of one or more about the casual (terrorism) can't
experimental relationships among be manipulated
manipulations on variables
2 Sample Questions
1. Define the term converging operations and indicate its meaning in behavioral
Converging operations is the use of multiple measures or research approaches to test
the same concept. The goal is that the results should be the same across the different
approaches. This is a popular method of reinforcing findings in behavioral research.
2. What is the difference between values and facts? How do each play a role in
This is known as the “is-ought” problem. What someone believes another should do is a
value, while a fact is a justified, true belief about the state of reality.
BUT WHAT PROFESSOR STANGOR WANTS:
This is the difference between how an article presents its findings. The intro and the
discussion are heavily weighted with values, and the methods and results are
heavily weighted with facts. It doesn’t necessarily mean that one is just expressing
baseless opinions in the intro and discussion, but that they’re more subjective in
terms of describing what their basis for conducting the research and how they’re
interpretting the results. The method and results sections are objective, in that they
should essentially look the same no matter who writes them because they’re not dealing
with any opinions, only a statement of the facts.
3. List the three different research designs used to study behavior. Give one
specific example of each approach that is not mentioned in the textbook. What are the
advantages and disadvantages of each approach?
See above #7 above.
Interviews, Surveys, Case Studies