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PSYC 341- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 24 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 341
Professor
Brooke Okada
Study Guide
Final

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UMD
PSYC 341
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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8/31/17
History & Methods
Antecedents to Cognitive Psychology
o Introspection thinking about one’s own mental processes
Structuralism
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
o Elementary structures of mind, basic building blocks of
consciousness
Functionalism
William James (1842-1910)
o Important American psychologist
o Discovered short term and long term memory
o Gestalt psychology
Whole > sum of its parts
o Behaviorism only interested in observable behavior, not the cognitive processes
behind the decision-making
Stimulus response
Skinner free will is an illusion
Behavior > mental processes because mental processes can’t be directly
studied. The ‘what’ is more important than the ‘why’
Tollman’s maze – learning experiments (involving rats)
Rats have an internal map because they take shortcuts, even after
learning the maze without the shortcuts
Cognitive Psychology
o Stimulus ‘what is going on in the mind?’ response
o ‘Cognitive Revolution’ after the ‘failure’ of behaviorism
Models of cognitive processes
Language
Memory
Cognitive development
Technological advancements
o Information processing model series of processes operating on internal
representations
Reductionist approach understanding larger processes by breaking them
into smaller processes
Boxes in the head model
o Neural Network Models aka Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) distributed,
parallel interactions of simple processing units
Methods of Studying Cognition
o Behavioral Experiments
Accuracy, response time, eye movement, judgment, etc.
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Experimental vs. correlation
o Modeling
Artificial intelligence vs. cognitive modeling
o Cognitive neuroscience
‘natural’ experiments (i.e.; brain damage victims)
Ex. Phineas Gage
Neuroimaging (PET, fMRI) or (ERP, MEG)
Subtraction method subtract the control image from the trial
group image to determine differences in brain activity
Caveat: indirect measures may cause errors because it measures
blood flow, not actual neurons
ERP Event-Related Potential
o Examines electrical signal after discrete event
o Average many trials to see signal over noise
o Identify ‘components’ related to different processes
Cognition
o Active, not passive
o Efficient and accurate (usually)
o Handles positive information better than negative (e.g.; no double negatives
because difficult to process)
o Involves interrelated (not isolated) processes
o Relies on ‘bottom up’ and ‘top down’ processing
9/5/17
Perception I
Sensation initial reception of information
Perception interpretation of sensation
o Proximal stimulus retinal image of object (2D, inverted image)
Retinal image
Far objects = smaller retinal image than close object
o Distal stimulus physical object in environment
o Percept recognition of object
o Perceptual constancy same percept of object despite systematic changes in
retinal image
Color and size constancy
Depth perception
o Monocular cues
Linear perspective
Occlusion/interposition
Light and shadow
Relative size
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