PSYC 355- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 41 pages long!)

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PSYC 355
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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February 1
Prenatal Development
•conceptualizations of prenatal development
–preformationism
epigenesis→ emergence of new structures and functions during development
>>predetermined:
∆ genetic activity→ structure→ function
>>probabilistic:
∆ genetic activity← → structure← → function (emphasizes the reciprocity of
influences within and between levels
•conception key terms:
–gametes
–meiosis
–zygote→ fertilized egg
•4 developmental processes
–1. Cell division
–2. Cell migration→ movement of cells from point of origin to somewhere else
–3. Cell differentiation→ transforms unspecialized cells into specialized cells
–4. apoptosis→ selective death of certain cells to eliminate unnecessary or inappropriate
cells
•3 periods of prenatal development
–germinal (conception- 2 weeks) → cells are dividing and multiplying as well as
differentiating
–embryonic (3-8 weeks) → development of all of the major organs and systems in the
body
–fetal (9 weeks- birth) → development of physical structures as well as rapid growth
>>also an increase in sensory development and learning
•support system→ placenta, umbilical cord, amniotic sac
•Fetal behavior
–an active contributor to its own development
–by 12 weeks, most movements that will be present at birth have appeared
>>swallowing
>>”breathing” (not real breathing but the action is practiced)
>>limb movement
>>sleep-wake cycles
•Fetal experience
–sensory structures are present relatively early
–the fetus experiences:
•Fetal learning
–fetal senses play a vital role in fetal development and learning
–decreases in response to repeated or continued stimulation reflects a simple form of
learning called habituation
–newborn infants prefer smells, sounds, tastes, and sound patterns that they are familiar
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with because of prenatal exposure
–they can even recognize rhymes and rhythms
•Hazards to prenatal development (environmental)
–miscarriage
>>about 45%+ of prenatal developments result in miscarriages
–genetic factors
–parental factors
>>age of the mother
∆infants born to girls age 15 or younger are at an increased risk to die before their
first birthday
∆infants born to girls age 35 or older are at an increased risk of genetic disorders
>>disease
∆ flu during pregnancy is linked to an increased risk of certain disorders such as
schizophrenia or autism
∆ nutrition
•fetal programming→ experiences during the prenatal period influence
physiology in adulthood (ex: increasing likelihood of obesity later in life)
>>stress-level
–environmental agents
>>teratogen→ an agent or factor that can cause damage or death to the fetus
∆time→ only going to have an effect on a certain organ or system if that organ or
system is developing at the time the teratogen is in use
∆dose→ for some substances, the more, the worse
∆duration→ effects become cumulative over time
∆influences→ fetal programming, sleeper effects, individual differences
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Document Summary

Epigenesis emergence of new structures and functions during development. Genetic activity structure function (emphasizes the reciprocity of influences within and between levels: conception key terms: Cell migration movement of cells from point of origin to somewhere else. Cell differentiation transforms unspecialized cells into specialized cells. 4. apoptosis selective death of certain cells to eliminate unnecessary or inappropriate cells: 3 periods of prenatal development. Germinal (conception- 2 weeks) cells are dividing and multiplying as well as differentiating. Embryonic (3-8 weeks) development of all of the major organs and systems in the body. Fetal (9 weeks- birth) development of physical structures as well as rapid growth. >>also an increase in sensory development and learning: support system placenta, umbilical cord, amniotic sac, fetal behavior. By 12 weeks, most movements that will be present at birth have appeared. >> breathing (not real breathing but the action is practiced) Fetal senses play a vital role in fetal development and learning.

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