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Psyc355 Exam 1 Study Guide.docx

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University of Maryland
PSYC 355
Laura Sherman

Study Guide for Psyc355 Exam 1 STUDYING DEVELOPMENT Research methods: • scientific method • gathering data about children • choosing the right measure • study designs • research designs Gather data about children by • ask- interviews or questionaires • watch- naturalistic observation, structured observation • record biology- physiological, neurological o involuntary responses, brain structure, brain activity Choosing the right measure • relevance to hypotheses • reliability o interrater reliability- amt of agreement in observations of diff raters who witness the same behavior o test retest reliability- attained when measures of performance are similar on 2 or more occasions • validity o internal validity- degree to which effects can be attributed to the variables that the researcher intentionally manipulated o external validity- degree to which results can be generalized beyond particulars of the research. can it be applied? Study Designs • Cross sectional- study a lot of people in an instant. snapshot • Longitudinal- a case study over extended period of time • Cross sequential- an accelerated longitudinal. break up an extended period of time among a few people • Microgenic- focus on a behavior right as it is about to happen, intensely. usually for children on the verge of an important developmental change Research Design • correlational studies. correlation does not equal causation! • case studies • experiments Development • Three main ways of development o makes an indiv better adapted to environment o proceeds from simple and global to more complex and specific o relatively enduring • What develops? o physical, motor o cognitive o social/emotional Domains of development! • Who studies development? o developmental scientists • Why study development? o to gain insight into human nature o to gain insight into the origins of individual differences  adult behavior  sex differences/ gender roles  effects of culture o to gain insight into developmental problems  origins, treatment, prevention o to optimize conditions of development  enhance childrens lives o to help raise children  feeding  responding to them  learning  activities o to help choose social policies  make informed decisions about social- policy questions that affect children • Goals of developmental research o describe what people are like at different ages and how they change as a result of age o explain what causes developmental change o predict what an individual will be like at a later point in development based on past and present characteristics o intervene, to use this knowledge to enhance the quality of children’s lives • History of developmental research o [nurture] Plato and Aristotle believed long term welfare of society depended on children’s being raised properly  they differed in their origins of knowledge o Later philosophers (John Locke- tabula rasa and Jean Jacques Rousseau) focused on how parents and society could promote child development  differed in their beliefs about the inherent nature of children  approaches to instruction o Research Based Approach is the result of:  social reform movements  Charles Darwin theory of evolution o Formal Field of Inquiry  early assessment • G Stanley Hall (Contents of Children’s Minds) • intelligence test- Alfred Binet  early evidence based theories • Sigmund freud • john Watson Nature vs Nuture The single most basic question about child development • Universal vs. Individual differences o species typical developments- developments may vary across indiv • Development is driven by NATURE o Nativism- characteristics are innate or inborn, not acquired or learned o Genetic Determinism- human qualities are genetically determined and cannot be changed, (no nurture) o Eugenics (good genes)- the stance advocating for controlled breeding to keep desirable traits. ex. White supremacy, hitler, etc (some genes better than others) • Mechanisms contributing to genetic diversity o parents and child’s genotypes  mutations  random assortment  crossing over o child’s genotype and phenotype gene expression  dominance patterns  polygenetic effects  regulator genes • Development is driven by NURTURE o environmentalists  newborn is unformed, characteristics are entirely product of experience  tabula rasa- “blank slate”  socio-cultural theories • Development is PART NATURE, PART NURTURE o perspective changed: both play a role, key is to discover how much each contributes o Behavior genetics  Twin studies, adoption studies, family relatedness studies  Ex. Minnesota study of twins reared apart: they found similarities in traits like IQ, reaction to stress, traditionalism o Heritability  A statistical estimate  proportion of the measured variance on a given trait among indiv in a given population that is attributable to genetic differences among those indiv • how much of trait that you have is determined by genes  in a pop, it is the population of the phenotype that can be accounted for by the genotype  limits of heritability estimates • applies only to populations, not to individuals • applies only to a particular group living at a particular time • can differ markedly for groups of people who grow up in different environments • can differ with development • high heritability does not imply low malleability o Criticisms of part nature, part nurture  genes and environment work hand in hand (genes and environment are correlated)  genes don’t have the same effect in all environments  even if a trait is largely inherited, some is still environment and they can change o Mechanisms contributing to genetic diversity  Pathway 4- child’s phenotype to child’s environment • temperament- biologically based indiv differences in emotional, motor, and attentional reactivity and self regulation that demonstrate consistency across situations and stability over time • parenting  child is source of their own develop • active creators of the enviros where they live o Development results from interaction between nature and nurture  more contemporary view emphasizes the interaction  darwin’s theory of evolution • survival of the fittest • natural selection  probabilistic epigenetics  GxE interactions o The case of PKU  early diagnosis and properly restricted diet, mental retardation from PKU can be avoided (nurture can override what’s predetermined by nature)  nurture can change nature! o Caspi et. al  young men who were maltreated are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior than those who were not maltreated  however, the effect was even stronger for those who have relatively inactive MAOA gene  nature can strengthen nurture o The nurturing rat  good mothers had children who became good mothers  gene expression: process through which genes influence the production of specific proteins, which in turn influence the phenotype • Points to keep in mind about nature vs nurture o neither are static factors o both are sources of stability and change o definition of environment o bi-directional influences o g-e coaction, correlations o environmental effects on gene expression Prenatal Development and the Newborn Period • Conception o the union of 2 gametes, the egg and sperm o gametes are produced through a specialized cell division, which results in each gametes having only half the genetic material of all other normal cells in the body o Female reproductive system  process of rep starts with launching of an egg from one of the womans ovaries into fallopian tube. conception will be possible if sex takes place near the time egg is released  sex differences • approx. 120- 150 males are conceived for every 100 females • but male embryos are miscarried at higher rates than female embryos, and boys are more vulnerable to devel disorders • males are also more vulnerable to illnesses throughout the life span  The zygote- the fertilized egg has a full complement of human genetic material, half from each parent • marks the beginning of the 3 periods of prenatal development • The 3 periods of prenatal development o germinal/ zygotic (conception- 2 weeks) o embryonic (3 - 8 week) o fetal (9 week- birth) • Developmental processes o 4 major devel processes transform a zygote into a embryo and then into a fetus 1. cell division (the proliferation of cells) 2. cell migration (the movement of cells from their point of origin to somewhere else in the embryo) 3. cell differentiation (transforms the embryos unspecialized stem cells into diff types of cells) 4. apoptosis (genetically programmed cell death. enables prenatal development) • The embryo o after implantation, the inner cell mass becomes the embryo and the rest of the cells develop into its support system o the neural tube is a U- shaped groove formed from the top layer of the differentiated cells in the embryo  eventually becomes the brain and the spinal cord o The support system includes  placenta- permits exchange of materials between the bloodstream of the fetus and that of the mother  umbilical cord- the tube that contains the blood vessels that travel from the placenta to the developing organism and back again o protecting the fetus  placenta membrane is a barrier against some, but not all toxins and infectious agents  amniotic sac, a membrane filled with fluid in which the fetus floats, provides a protective buffer for the fetus • Fetal Behavior o by 12 weeks after gestation, most of movements present at birth have appeared  prenatal to postnatal continuity  swallowing amniotic fluid promotes the normal devel of the palate and aids in the maturation of the digestive system  movement of the chest wall and pulling in and expelling small amounts of amniotic fluid help the respiratory system become functional o behavioral cycles  become stable during the second half of pregnancy  circadian rhythms are also apparent  near the end of pregnancy, the fetus’ sleep and wake states are similar to those of the newborn • Fetal experience o sensory structures are present relatively early in prenatal development  prenatal visual experience is negligible  fetus experiences tactile stimulation as a result of its own activity and tastes and smells the amniotic fluid  responds to sounds from at least the 6 month of gestation • Fetal learning o at 32 weeks gestation, the fetus decreases responses to repeated or continued stimulation, a simple form of learning called habituation o recognize rhymes and stories presented before birth o prefer smells, tastes, and sound patterns that are familiar because of prenatal exposure • Hazards to prenatal development o miscarriage (spontaneous abortion)- around 45% or more of conceptions result in very early miscarriages, and about 15- 20% of pregnancies of which women are aware are miscarried. the majority of embryos that miscarry very early have severe defects o environmental influences  teratogens- enviro agents that have the potential to cause harm during prenatal development (timing is important- sensitive periods) • most teratogens show a dose response relations • indiv differences also influence the effects of teratogens • identifying teratogens is difficult bc of the existence of sleeper effects in which the impact of a given agent may not be apparent for many years • may be legal or illegal substances o drugs o environmental pollutants o maternal disease The Birth Experience • approx. 38 weeks after conception, contractions of the uterine muscles begin, initiating the birth of the baby • many aspects of the birth experience have adaptive value and increase the survival likelihood for the newborn • maternal brain response to own baby cry is affected by c section delivery • Head plates- pressure on the head during birth can cause plates on head to overlap, resulting in a temporarily misshapen head The Newborn Infant • Newborn reflexes o rooting, stepping, moro, etc • 6 states of arousal o active sleep (8 hrs) o quiet sleep (8 hrs) o crying (2 hrs) o active awake (2.5 hrs) o alert awake (2.5 hrs) o drowsing (1 hr) • Crying o early on, crying reflects discomfort or frustration o crying gradually becomes more of a communicative act  with experience, parents become better at interpreting the characteristics of the cry itself o many effective soothing techniques, like swaddling, involve moderately intense and continuous or repetitive stimulation o parents of babies with colic should seek social support and relief from frustration- and remember that colic acid typically ends within a few months • Negative Outcomes at Birth o infant mortality- death during the first year after birth. relatively rare event now, but a famer infants are more than twice as likely to die before their first birthday than white babies  poverty and lack of health insurance are associated with high rates of infant mortality o low birth weight- (lower than 5.5 lbs). lbw infants born at or before 35 weeks after conception are described as premature  other lbw infants are referred to as small for gestation age when their birth weight is substantially less than the norm for their gestational age  lbw babies experience more medical complications, have more developmental difficulties and present special challenges for parents • extensive parent contact and more touch for infants in neonatal intensive care are widely used interventions • Poverty as developmental hazard o the existence of multiple risks strongly related to socioeconomic factors o in many countries, minority families are overrepresented in the lowest SES levels. Cognitive and Infancy • newborn infants have been shown to recognize rhymes and stories presented before birth
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