PSYC 355 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Nicaraguan Sign Language, Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence, Speech Perception

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Lecture 12 - Memory Development
Long term memory – memories that went through encoding, consolidation, and storage
phases
oImplicit - unconscious
Procedural skills – ride bike, tie shoes
Emotional Conditioning – Pavlov
Priming Effect – talk about beaches and when hear “palm” think trees
Conditioned Reflex
oExplicit (declarative)
Semantic - words, ideas, concepts
Episodic - biographical events
Infantile amnesia: why does it occur?
o0-2 Years
oMobile-Conjugate Reinforcement Task – shows that there is memory in infancy
Move leg and mobile moves – positive reinforcement
oOccurs because of a change in information encoding/storage
Not because of passage of time
Not because they do not form memories
oReasons: How the world is perceived, Language, and Brain Development
Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex
Memory Development: continues through childhood – how many memories, types of
memories, and narrative quality
oBasic processes: memory capacity and speed of processing improve
Memory binding improves – join 2 things in memory (object and location)
Improve in reality monitoring – remember if they did it or imagined it
oStrategic processes: deliberate activities that improve the processing of
information
Can be used at all stages of memory process
Jump from using strategies infrequently to more regularly
Development is similar to overlapping waves theory
Use of less efficient strategies lead to most efficient
Basic strategies observed as early as 2 years
Complex strategies emerge in school years
Strategies may not show a benefit due to initial cognitive cost of
employing them
Children use strategies but don’t benefit from them – take extra
cognitive effort and don’t help until they are more familiar
Not because they don’t use them because they don’t help or they
choose not to use them
oMetacognition: an awareness and understanding of one’s own thoughts
Development of factual knowledge on memory
Overconfidence → children are usually over confident about abilities
Increased abilities may be aided by the amount of remembering children
need to do for school and then the feedback they get on if they are
remembering correctly
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Self monitoring → older children better at knowing when they
need more time on things
May be teachable, increase flexibility, increase
generalizability
oContent knowledge: as it increases, it is easier to integrate new material with
existing knowledge
Children and adults asked to remember numbers and chess pieces,
children had experience with chess
Children remembered chess pieces and not numbers
Content knowledge gained before/after an event can affect what is learned
or remembered from the event
oAll 4 work together in memory development
Applications - eyewitness testimony: children more suggestible and leading questions can
have substantial effects
Lecture 13 - Language Development
Steps of Language Development (in the book)
1. Phonological Development - acquiring info about the sound system of the language
1. morphemes
2. Semantic development- learning the system for expressing meaning in a language, word
learning
3. Syntactic Development- acquire rules for combining words in a given language
4. Pragmatic Development - acquiring knowledge about how lang is used.
Levels of structure for language:
oCommunication: birth +
Prelinguistic communication lays foundation
Children: social signals - crying/smiling, social partners, intentional
attempts to communicate
Parents: Infant-directed speech, enforcement of turn taking structure, treat
infant actions as intentional
oPhonology (sounds): birth +
Sounds carry info at several levels simultaneously
Prosody – melody of language, pitch, rhythm
Speaker identity, speech acts (question, statement)
Statistical Regularities – sounds occur regularly together as words
Which sounds can occur together in a language
Phonemic Structure – sound units that build words
Smallest change that can change the meaning of words
Inborn structure for phoneme perception
Infants born ready to perceive structure, discrete to ear but
not physically discrete
“Bah vs Pah”
Time relative to stop when vocal cords begin to
vibrate
Adults cannot find difference but infants can
Experience with language influences speech perception
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Occurs before babies know words – better listeners
oLexicon (words): 1yr +
Symbolic – they stand for their referents (smoke – fire)
Arbitrary – Do not just resemble what they mean, they are paired
Conventional – shared by group, otherwise useless
Comprehend more than they can say
Learn through fast mapping, and the more parents say, the larger the
child’s vocabulary grows
oMorphology & Syntax (rules): 2 yrs + rules of language
Syntax – rules that govern building sentences from words
Morphology – rules that govern complex word building from smaller
units of meaning (morphemes)
Free Morphemes – whole words (can be combined to form compounds)
Bound Morphemes – sub-word units (-ish)
Allomorphs – different forms of the same morpheme
Plural can be –s (cats), -en (oxen), or zero suffix (sheep)
Overregularization – “goed” “mans” “bringed”
Wugtest
oFake word, and applying inferred rules to this pseudo word
oEarly age able to recognize these patterns
oEarlier stages can only do it with real words
Nurture – “hearing it helps you learn it” and WHEN you hear it matters
oAge of exposure determines the ability to command grammar
oShow less localized activity if you learn later
oRichness in environment needed to learn a language
oWe need a language model to learn it
Nature – Has the last word, give the ability to be prepared to learn the language
oCritical periods, unique to humans, resilient and universal
Home sign & Nicaraguan Sign Language you get more developed language by running it
through the brain of a child
oEach new generation improved the seeds of the previous generation
Lecture 14 - Conceptual Development
Non-linguistic symbols and development
oSymbol – something that someone intends to represent something other than itself
oMuch of knowledge is acquired via symbolic media
Language, pictures, written words, television
oExternal symbols can be confusing
Children carried away by symbol – compelled to act on it as if it were the
object itself
Scale errors: 12-24 months
Attempt to perform an impossible task
DeLoache Study: In this study, children were introduced to large
(normal-sized) objects and given a chance to familiarize
themselves with them. Some were also prompted to engage in play
behavior with the objects. After several minutes, the large objects
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Document Summary

Long term memory memories that went through encoding, consolidation, and storage phases o. Priming effect talk about beaches and when hear palm think trees. 0-2 years: mobile-conjugate reinforcement task shows that there is memory in infancy. Move leg and mobile moves positive reinforcement: occurs because of a change in information encoding/storage. Not because they do not form memories: reasons: how the world is perceived, language, and brain development. Memory development: continues through childhood how many memories, types of memories, and narrative quality: basic processes: memory capacity and speed of processing improve. Memory binding improves join 2 things in memory (object and location) Improve in reality monitoring remember if they did it or imagined it: strategic processes: deliberate activities that improve the processing of information. Can be used at all stages of memory process. Jump from using strategies infrequently to more regularly. Development is similar to overlapping waves theory. Use of less efficient strategies lead to most efficient.

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