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PSYC444 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE- All Need to Know Terms Included.docx

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PSYC 444
Kent Norman

PSYC444 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE Computer and Human Literacy: - HUMAN/ INTERFACE- point or area through which communication of information and control passes from human to computer and from computer to human - DIGITAL VS ANALOG: o Digital- computer’s underlying data is 0 or 1 (binary) and no inherent value to representation of 0 or 1 o Analog- for humans there’s inherent value for different states (neural states= resting or active, inhibitory or excitatory) - PRINCIPLE OF MASS ACTION- destroy parts of brain doesn’t stop human from completely functioning (behavior just might be impaired) o Destroy parts of computer can cause it to stop altogether and won’t reboot - LOCALIZATION OF FUNCTION- different parts of brain/ computer hardware specialize in diff functions - PARALLEL PROCESSING o Human’s sensory- motor process, bodily function and unconscious process run in parallel and controlled by different neural and brain centers simultaneously o Computers have many parallel processes that handle different functions - SERIAL PROCESSING o Humans only think about one thing at a time (human thought process/ conscious experience) o Computers have central processor that can only do one task at a time (switch from one job to another) - AUTONOMIC SYSTEMS and HOMEOSTASIS o Human nervous system has self- preserving functions (sympathetic NS control basic housekeeping fx) o Computers has housekeeping fx as well but are NOT self- sustaining/ autonomous and rely on their users to start, stop and control their actions - Reposition to COGNITIVE LANDMARKS. When menus are organized according to a semantic network, there are generally pivotal landmarks at which fundamental turns are taken. o When we give directions to geographical locations, we generally use landmarks. If one gets lost, one can return to the landmark in order to redirect search. Random Trial and Randomly select actions and Randomly try different functions Error see if they work. and operations. Systematic Trial Systematically go through all Automate the search process. and Error possilities. LANGUAGE Software Psychology- thought processes involved in programming computers 1. Machine Language : machine level instructions (e.g., 45F5A330 645A9B9 231AC066 ...) 2. Assembly Language : pneumonic instructions (e.g., add a, shift right, null, jump B, ...) 3. End User Programming: scripts and macros a. Set simple controls/ parameters (clock radio or VCR) b. Programming by example: watch me do it and learn c. programming by direct manipulation: build a program dragging things around d. natural language programming: just tell it what to do e. visual programming: put together with pictures Syntax- arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES 1/29/14 CYBERPSYCHOLOGY- study of things that pertain both to the behavior of humans and to the activities of computers. Computers: Hardware Architecture 1. Motherboard- larger printed circuit board History of Computers 2. CPU- central processing unit, performs all of the FIRST GENERATION- first machines based on wired instructions/ steps in program circuits, electromagnetic relays and vacuum tubes 3. COMPUTER BUS- transmission path signals are - large and unreliable and used a lot of dropped/ picked up by attached devices 4. Memory- READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM) contains electricity SECOND GENERATION- invention of transistor in initial instructions and RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY 1947 which replaced relays and vacuum tubes of 1 G. st (RAM) allows computers to write/ read from storage 5. Peripherals- keyboard, mouse, monitor - printed circuit boards reduced computer size in 1950-60s 6. Communications LOCAL AREA NETWORKS THIRD GENERATION- invention of integrated circuit (LANS) allow computers to communicate/ share files in 1958 in limited range & WIDE AREA NETWORKS (WAN) allow communication at global level - computer “chip” incorporated many transistor gates on 1 microchip - era of large mainframe computers of 60s Computers: Logic and Programming 1. Circuit- acts as register storing representation of a 0 or FOURTH GENERATION- breakthrough for modern 1 or logic gate converting input to output representing 0 computing in 1971 when Intel released first or 1 commercial microprocessor put all of computer’s a. AND gate on if Input A and B both on processing into 1 Large Scale Integration (LSI) chip or b. OR gate on if either Input A or B on 1 Very LSI microchip c. XOR gate on if Input A or Input B on, not both 2. Registers- store the state of computer at one point/ tick of clock cycle a. determines size of computer word or “byte” History Of HCI And Cyberpsychology 3. Instruction Set- contains all of the possible operations GENERATION 0- no human/ computer interface - no users other than computer scientists who built can be performed on its registers and programmed machines a. Include operations to move contents of one register to another, add or subtract contents of - human factor issues- too many toggles/ registers and address memory locations connections b. Fixed by logic built into microcomputer chip - to reduce time/ errors involved in program HCI invented 4. Signals- output and input to CPA is signal conveyed along wires GENERATION 1- computer programming languages and a. PARALLEL SIGNALS- whole byte operating systems used to shape HCI transmitted in one pulse and require as many - programming= communicating to computer and display was feedback wires as bits in byte b. SERIAL SIGNAL- requires fewer wires - alphanumeric and language based 5. Operating System- BIOS- (Basic Input/ Output - software psychology (Ben Schneiderman) System) (on ROM) and contains all code required to GENERATION 2- 1973 breakthrough where XEROX control keyboard, display screen, serial PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) created paperless communications to allow computer to start up office of tomorrow - the Alto computer w/ first graphical user interface or Humans: GUI and first internal network (Ethernet) NEURONS- complex living cell that provides its own energy - Steve Jobs of Apple used GUI to create LISA from nutrients around it ACTION POTENTIAL- brief firing pulse (positive charge GUI- GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE that travels down axon) - What you see is what you get- appearance on RESTING STATE- inactive, negative charge screen is how would look when printed SYNAPSE- gap not using electrical charge but - Introduce multimedia w/ sound, animation, video neurotransmitters NEUROTRANSMITTERS- chemicals that transmit signals - Interfaces today still Generation 2 User Friendly- describe easy to use interfaces PLASTICITY (self- organizing over time, neurons orient User- Centered Design- encourage programmers to think themselves and build synaptic connections) about how user approached tasks instead of how computer PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES- basic, fortran, cobol processed data 1. compilers: programs that convert the code to Cyberpsych Visionaries assembly language and machine language 1. VANNEVAR BUSH- wrote device called “memex” (e.g., Fortran, C) embodied ideas similar to hypertext and World Wide 2. interpreters: programs that interpret the Web, inspire other to bring ideas to a reality instructions and run the code themselves (e.g., 2. DOUGLAS ENGELBART- wrote On- Line System Basic, Javascript) (NLS), first implementation of hypertext 3. hybrid: programs that compile the code to an a. Computer Supported Co- operative Work and efficient set of instructions that can be run groupware cross platform (e.g., Java) 3. TED NELSON- worked on software framework called Xanadu and embodies World Wide Web concepts Communication System Features 4. JCR LICKLIDER- ideas of human computer 1. Meaningfulness- words must represent symbiosis and computer as communication device things/ sentences must convey relationships a. Influential person in computer science 2. Displacement- allow us to communicate b. Led development of internet and invention of things that are displaced in time or space (talk mouse, windows, hypertext about yesterday or tomorrow) 3. Productivity- produce communications that Psycholinguistics have never been communicated before - Phonemes- pattern of sounds - Graphemes-visual symbols - Sign Language- hand shapes, palm orientations and hand/ arm movement, facial expression GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY- looks at human mind/ Grace Hopper- help establish idea of programming/ behavior as a whole rather than breaking them up into computer language smaller parts - “programming language” Omniscience- all knowing Gary Kildall- created the CP/M operating system and Omnipotence- all powerful saw microprocessors as fully capable computers Omnipresence- always present Bill
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