[BIL 160] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (10 pages long!)

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BIL 160
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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January 23rd-27th 2017
Assignment: Read Chapter 23 before Jan 27th, take notes.
Evolution Accounts for the Unity and Diversity of Life
The one idea that makes logical sense of everything we know about living organisms.
The scientific explanation for both the unity and diversity of organisms is the concept that living
organisms are modified descendants of common ancestors
Many kinds of evidence support the occurrence of evolution.
Evolutionary mechanisms account for the unity and diversity of all species on Earth.
Species: one of the many key concepts in the sciences that were part of human
understanding before modern science existed; subtle, complex, and disputed
the concepts in physics of “time,” “light,” etc.
Long before biology developed as the scientific study of living things, all human cultures
could recognize and distinguish among many different kinds of plants and animals
Not only humans - other living things also must be able to tell different species
apart.
Monarch butterflies only lay their eggs on milkweed plants; had to
distinguish from all other plants.
Introduction to Biodiversity
Species are different “kinds” of living things
Often delimited from other species by the ability to interbreed
Same species - can interbreed
Different species - cannot interbreed.
Home many different kinds?
One estimate around 1.8 million species that are named
Many species are not yet known to science
Maybe 10-100 million species total?
Some become extinct before they are even discovered
Genus: a group of species that are similar and closely related (plural, genera)
Eleutherodactylus is a genus that includes around 700 species of frogs
Eleutherodactylus planirostrus is one species of this genus.
Species is the whole name (two words), not just the last word
Eleutherodactylus planirostrus is a Greenhouse frog.
Linnaeus: binomial nomenclature (two names) to identify species of living things.
Morphological species concept: different species defined by difference in morphology
(from); MSC still important and widely used; type specimens document the scientific
names of species
Each organism, as we see it at any one time, is only one stage of a life cycle a continuing
process of growth, change, and reproduction.
An organism at any stage of a life cycle is connected to others that came before, and that
will come after.
Missing Notes…
Evolution” descent with modification
Natural Selection is one mechanism by which evolution in natural populations can occur,
leading to adaptation.
Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural Selection
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Fossils and other evidence document the evolution of life on Earth over billions of years.
Evidence of what happen on Earth in the past.
Tree of Life:
All come from one common ancestor.
Common family tree for all life (phylogeny or cladogram)
Branching relationships from more or less recent ancestry.
How have the lineages changed over time?
Relationships to the environment changing?
A species didn’t change into more species, but there
was a change in their ecology.
All of life have certain properties in common.
The forelimb of the bat, human, horse are the whale flipper all share a
common skeletal architecture. Called homology (comparability)
Difference arise from the environment and function which one performs.
Fossils provide additional evidence of anatomical unity from descent of
modification.
Studying in Nature (Tangent to Ch. 1)
The word science is derived from latin and means “to know”
Inquiry is the search for information and explanations of natural phenomena.
The scientific process include making observations, forming hypotheses, and testing them.
Experimental science (e.g. investigation the role of a particular gene in development)
Discovery Science (e.g. finding a new species)
Doesn’t necessary fit into the experimental model)
Historical Science (e.g. choosing among different hypotheses of phylogeny - different
hypotheses about what happened in the past)
Forensic Science.
Inductive Reasoning: draws conclusions through the logical process of induction.
Repeating specific observations can lead to important generalizations.
“The sun always rises in the east”
Forming and Testing Hypothesis
A tentative answer to a ell-framed scientific question.
Usually a rational accounting for a set of observations
Leads to prediction that can be tested by making additional observations or by
performing experiments.
Sometimes can accept a wrong hypotheses for a long period of time before finding new
data to create a new hypotheses.
Deductive Reasoning: uses general premises to make specific observations.
Predicted results of the experiment are logically inevitable.
General premise to create specific predictions.
Hypotheses that can and cannot be addressed by Science
A hypothesis must be testable and falsifiable.
Supernatural and religious explanations are outside the bounds of science.
Flexibility of the Scientific Process
Scientific method is an idealized process of inquiry
Hypotheses based science is based on the “textbook” science.
Theories in Science
Broader in scope than a hypothesis.
General, and can lead to new, testable, hypotheses.
Supported by a large body of evidence in comparison to a hypothesis.
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