BIL 160 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Motoo Kimura, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Great Chain Of BeingExam
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STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM I - Spring 2020
This guide is a checklist of items you should know for Exam I.
They are taken from both the lecture notes and the required textbook readings.
For an excellent overview of misconceptions about natural selection and adaptation, go here:
Consider all embedded videos to be required viewing. You might see questions about them on the exam.
Introduction to Evolution
Know the four major lines of evidence that evolution has occurred and is now occurring.
Be able to recognize examples of these lines of evidence.
Know the meaning/significance of:
fossils homologous characters biogeography paleontology
transitional fossils analogous characters scientific hypothesis, theory, and law
Be familiar with some of the recent examples of evolution we discussed in class.
Be able to address and correct the following misconceptions about evolution:
• Evolution is only a theory.
• Evolution is progress: evolving organisms get better.
• Evolution has never been observed.
• There are no transitional fossils.
• Evolution violates the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
Use this site to address these additional misconceptions:
• Evolution is a theory about the origin of life.
• Evolution is a completely random process.
• Individual organisms evolve over the course of their lifespan.
The Darwinian Revolution
Understand what is meant by “patterns” in the natural world, and what their significance is to the process and
understanding of evolution.
Know precisely what is meant by the terms observation, empirical data, and facts
Be familiar with the contributions (to evolutionary thought) of
Plato and Aristotle George Cuvier (Thomas) Robert Malthus Motoo Kimura
George Louis Leclerc James Hutton Charles Darwin
Jean Baptiste Lamarck Charles Lyell Alfred Russel Wallace
You can find brief bios here: http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/dox/evolution_who.html
What is scala naturae, and who proposed it?
What is the theory of evolution?
What is the theory of evolution by means of inheritance of acquired characteristics, and who proposed it?
What is the theory of evolution by means of natural selection, and who proposed it ?
What is the theory of evolution by means of neutral mutations, and who proposed it?
Why is epigenetic inheritance sometimes said to be “NeoLamarckian”?
Know the definitions and significance of
organic evolution gene pool deme
biological species evolutionary vs. physiological adaptation microevolution
population speciation macroevolution
artificial selection descent with modification convergent evolution
…and be able to recognize examples of these.
What are homologous characters? How do they contribute to evidence for evolution/natural selection?
What are analogous characters? How do they contribute to evidence for evolution/natural selection?
Understand how Darwin’s observations (on the voyage of the HMS Beagle and back home in England) led him to the
inferences that became the four tenets of evolution by means of natural selection.
(Why the kerfuffle over “survival of the fittest”? Isn’t that what Darwin called it?)
Understand what is meant by adaptive, maladaptive, and neutral traits. What defines them?
What is the Darwinian definition of evolutionary fitness?
Understand what is meant by William Hamilton’s idea of “selfish genes”.
Do genes always encode traits that are best of their host’s long-term survival?
What is a “survival machine”, as described in the short video interview with Richard Dawkins?
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