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Quiz

BIL 160 Quiz: 160S20_stugu2Exam


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIL 160
Professor
Krempels Dana
Study Guide
Quiz

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STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM II - Spring 2020
REVIEW SESSION Thursday, February 20 at 6:35pm in Cox 126.
The exam will be given on Tuesday, February 25 at 5:00pm in Cox 126.
REMEMBER: This guide is not a substitute for coming to class, taking notes and reading your text. It is merely a general
checklist that should help guide you through your readings. Just because I may have missed a detail or two on this study guide
doesn't mean it's unimportant. Understand CONCEPTS and GENERAL FACTS/KNOWLEDGE rather than memorizing
details of specific examples meant to illustrate those things.
Readings from Campbell include Chapters 23 and 24.
Forces that Drive Evolution: Don’t forget these :
Recall the five criteria that must be met if a population is to remain in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and what they mean.
Remember that if a population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, it means that population is NOT EVOLVING.
Know the difference between microevolution and macroevolution.
Remember what is meant by adaptive, maladaptive, and neutral mutations, and understand how a mutation can have little or no
phenotypic effect, or possibly a major phenotypic effect.
Recall the difference between silent and neutral mutations. Is a silent mutation always neutral? Why or why not?
Forces that Drive Evolution: Also remember these
Know the meaning/significance of the following terms:
genetic drift inbreeding sampling error gene
Founder Effect outbreeding homozygosity allele
Bottleneck Effect fixation of an allele heterozygosity gene pool
Understand why the rate of evolution in a population can depend greatly on that population’s size.
Are small populations or large populations more likely to evolve quickly? Why?
Forces that Drive Evolution: Migration
Know the meaning/significance of the following terms:
deme gene flow introgression species reinforcement field mark
immigration effective population size hybrid zone species fusion autozygosity
emigration cohesive species hybrid speciation species stability/hybrid equilibrium
Understand how gene flow increases the effective size of a population and how lack of gene flow reduces the effective population size.
What are the advantages/disadvantages of homozygosity and heterozygosity in an individual or a population?
Know how to calculate effective population size, and understand the significance of reduced effective population size.
In a population with a skewed sex ratio, which sex has greater relative genetic contribution to the next generation, the scarcer or the
more abundant sex?
Forces that Drive Evolution: Non-random mating
Understand the precise meaning of non-random mating in a population genetics sense (i.e., in terms of frequency of the types of mating
individuals).
Know the meaning/significance of the following terms:
positive (assortative) non-random mating differential reproduction
negative (disassortative) non-random mating heterozygosity vs. homozygosity
Understand how inbreeding vs. outbreeding relate to non-random mating. (Think about it.)
With each type non-random mating, will heterozygosity and homozygosity increase or decrease? Why?
Consider how assortative mating can cause populations to segregate into effectively smaller populations, increasing the potential rate
of evolution due to other factors (different mutations, different selective pressures, etc.)
Understand the differences between assortative mating, disassortative mating, and sexual selection.
Are these forms of natural selection? If so, why? If not, why not?
Be able to apply the Product Rule to develop a null hypothesis about a population whose mating patterns you are studying.
Forces that Drive Evolution: Natural Selection
Remember that while natural selection (and the other five HW factors) may occur at the level the individual organism,
only populations evolve.
Know the meaning/significance of the following terms:
adaptive overproduction Darwinian fitness sympatric species
maladaptive competition relative fitness (W) coefficient wild type
neutral differential survival relative selection (s) coefficient mutant
heritable variability differential reproduction (^be able to calculate these^) honest signal
Be able to recognize and use equations for
effective population size: Ne = 4 x [(Nf x Nm)/(Nf + Nm)]
progeny survival rate: (N) = Nafter selection / Nbefore selection
relative fitness (ω) = Ncompeting genotype / Nfittest genotype
selection coefficient: s = 1 - ω
Understand why a trait that is adaptive in one context may not be in another context. Be able to recognize examples of this concept.
In Darwin’s “struggle for existence”, do individuals of the same species compete against each other? Their predators? Their
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