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BIL 226 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Cork Cambium, Nitrogen Fixation, Hartig NetExam

Course Code
BIL 226
Dana Krempels
Study Guide

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BIL 226, General Botany Krempels Study Guide for Exam II
The Stem
Know the general anatomy of the stem and its parts. Recognize the node, internode, apical bud,
axillary bud, leaf axil, leaf scar.
Know the locations and significance of the apical meristems, and the three primary meristems, as
well as what tissues arise from each primary meristem.
Recognize the anatomical structures of the monocot and dicot stems in cross sections, and their
significance. What structures are different between root and stem?
Know the meaning/significance/function of: lateral meristem, vascular cambium, cork
cambium, secondary growth, annual growth rings, springwood, summerwood, heartwood,
sapwood, determinate vs. indeterminate growth, annual versus perennial plants, true wood,
herbaceous, lenticel
Know the components of the bark, and be able to differentiate between bark, periderm, phloem,
cork, cork cambium (and know which of these is a part of which).
Know the various types of stem specializations, and be able to recognize even unfamiliar
examples, if they are described.
The Root
Know the various functions of the root.
Know the meaning/significance of: primary root, taproot, lateral roots, fibrous roots.
Know the general characteristics of roots and how root morphology and function can vary with
environmental conditions and species.
Know the basic structure of a growing root tip, and be able to identify and know the significance
and function(s) of: root cap, apical meristem, ground meristem, procambium, protoderm, zone
of cell division, zone of cell elongation, zone of maturation, endodermis, pericycle, Casparian
strip, pith, cortex, epidermis, trichome, root hair, quiescent center, mucilage/mucigel, columella,
Know the anatomy of a root in cross section, and be able to identify the layers and their function.
Know the general characteristics and morphology of both V.A.M. and ectomycorrhizae. What is
their relationship to the plant symbiont? Know the meaning/structure/significance of: vesicle,
arbuscule, hyphae, Hartig net, cortex cell
Know and understand the three general routes of water movement across plant cells: apoplastic,
symplastic, and tonoplastic.
Know the general anatomy of the stele, and the different forms it can take.
Know the different types of root specializations, and be able to recognize examples of them,
even if you haven't heard the specific examples before.
Understand the process of root colonization by nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and know the
meaning/significance of: nodules, leghemoglobin, infection thread, Rhizobium, crop rotation,
and refer to the diagram of the Nitrogen Cycle in Lecture Six (a new link) to review the Nitrogen
Cycle and its steps. Know the meaning of nitrogen fixer, denitrifyer, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia.
Water Movement
Know the meaning/significance of: bulk flow, water potential, solvent, solute, hydration shell,
hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic (=osmotic) solutions, diffusion, osmosis, dialysis
Know what is meant by the cohesive and adhesive properties of water.
Understand what may make a plant cell turgid or plasmoyze it.
Know the general processes involved in transpiration.
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