BIL 226 Study Guide - Final Guide: Vascular Plant, Neontology, EquisetalesExam
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BIL 226, General Botany – Krempels Study Guide for Final
Use your other three study guides to prepare for the cumulative part of the Final
Exam. The following is to help guide you through your notes to prepare for the
cumulative portion of the exam.
Know the general anatomy of the main groups of bryophytes.
Know how bryophytes are different from the tracheophytes.
Know the meaning/significance of: gametophyte, sporophyte, gamete, spore, sporophyll,
microsporophyll, megasporophyll, microspore, megaspore, archegonium, antheridium
Know the characters that set each group of bryophytes apart from the more primitive groups.
Know the meaning/significance of isogamy, heterogamy, oogamy, rhizoid, thallus
What is the Doctrine of Signatures? Read the link to the web page on the Doctrine, and be
ready for a question or two.
The Seedless Tracheophytes
Know the synapomorphies that set tracheophytes apart from bryophytes, and which ones
continued the inexorable trek towards a terrestrial existence.
Know how seedless tracheophytes (STs) are still tied to water and why.
Know the organs and which is the most primitive and most derived.
Recall the four types of tissue (meristematic, ground, vascular, dermal), their derivatives,
and components. How are they specialized in each group of seedless tracheophytes?
Know the meaning/significance of tracheids, vessel elements, tracheary elements, stele
(and the parts thereof), protostele (e.g., haplostele, actinostele, plectostele, and where
you'd be likely to find them), siphonostele (e.g., solenostele, dictyostele, eustele), enation,
Know the generalized life cycle of the seedless tracheophytes (ferns as an example), the
ploidy of each stage, etc.
Know the general characteristics of the three extinct STs we discussed in lecture, and
how they reflect characters now seen in extant taxa.
Know the general characteristics of Club Mosses, and the main differences between
Lycopodium and Selaginella.
Know the meaning/significance of strobilus, eusporangium, leptosporangium, rhizome,
rachis, fiddlehead, sorus, indusium, annulus
Know the general anatomy of a fern gametophyte and where the antheridia and
archegonia are located, as well as where the sporophyte grows.
Know the general characteristics of the Psilotales (whisk ferns), Equisetales (horsetails),
and the interesting dispersal mechanism exhibited by the spores of the latter.
Know the five phyla of seed plants, and which are gymnosperms. Know the general
characteristics of each of the gymnosperm taxa, as well as their names.
Know how gymnosperms are different from angiosperms.
Know the general anatomy of an ovule and of a seed, and which tissues are derived from
which generation (sporophyte, gametophyte, new sporophyte)
Know the meaning/significance of nucellus, integuments, micropyle, seed coat, ovule,
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