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Study Guide

[BIL 250] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 41 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIL 250
Professor
Kevin Mc Cracken
Study Guide
Final

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UM
BIL 250
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Genetics Test 1
No Class on
50 multiple choice questions
1 long answer/ diagram
Chapter 2: Genetic Material
- What is the genetic material? DNA
- What is the structure of DNA? Double- helix
Know historical events for each experiments
Francis crick comes into play from the beginning to even later
- Form a sentence for each experiments
Different Types of DNA:
A-DNA- shorter and fatter
B-DNA
Z-DNA- taller and skinnier, left-handed, repeating unit is 2bp instead of 1
mRNA- protein coding sequence
tRNA- attached to 3’ end, brings it to the ribosome
snRNA- utilized in intron removal
miRNA- hairpin, complementary pairs and inhibits translation
Chromosome packing:
Double Helix→ Beads on a string chromatin→ beads pack tightly→ nucleosomes go to chromatin
fiber→ looped domains form→ Chromosomes
Birds with hyperactive metabolism can have smaller genomes that are more efficient
A-T: Have a double hydrogen bond
G-C: have a triple hydrogen bond
Purines: double ring; A,G
Pyrimidines: single ring; C, T, U
Chapter 3: DNA Replication
There are 3 different types of Polymerases in Eukaryotes and 1 in Prokaryotes
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Genetics Test 1
dNTP- same fundamental mechanism as GTP and ATP
Humans have a moderately sized genome, other plants have bigger
genomes
Circular Genome molecule has a lot of tension
Rolling circle: nick the DNA and replicate off of it. You can make a copy of the
genome at many points of the genome
When RNA primers are removed, there is a gap
The RNA component of the telomerase recognizes this and catalyzes the
addition of repeats
If your telomerases are functioning, it will add on the repeated end so that the
ends do not shrink The enzyme is complementary of the molecule and DNA Ligase connects it.
Polymerase can not do what ligase does
When DNA is replicated, the entire chromosomal structure is replicated/ synthesized and
assembled
Know Semiconservative experiment
Chapter 4: Gene Function
Common genetic diseases: also difference between founder and bottleneck
- Sickle cell: malaria incentive
- Cystic Fibrosis
- Tay-Sachs Disease
Orange bread mold has two mating types: when they cross, they go through mitosis
Beadle and Tatum’s Experiment
Chapter 5: Transcription
How introns function
Why introns are important- serve to separate exons which can be splice in different ways
Important points for recombination, can regulate the rate of transcription
Non-transcribed: Outside of the transcriber unit
External- transcribed: inside the non-transcribed spacer, and closer to the transcriber unit
Chapter 6:Translation
The code has evolved in a way that minimizes the effects of mutations that cause damage
→ Corrects this with minor substitutions
How do you stop translation, there are multiple stop codons
What is the smallest amino acid?
Which two have identical chemical formulas but different structural ones?
Which amino acids are the targets for phosphorylation?
Which amino acids have sulfur?
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