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BIL 255- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 95 pages long!)


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIL 255
Professor
Baker James
Study Guide
Final

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UM
BIL 255
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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CELL MOLEC LECTURE 1
Biology is a fracture discipline
Broken into technique based on specializations
Biochemists
o Cells are proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and sugars
Biologists
o Cells are the fundamental units of life
Developmental biologists
o Cells produce organisms through patterning and interaction
Geneticists
o Cells are the carriers and producers of genetic material
Cells
Enclosed units
Respond and modify environment
Capacity to reproduce
What can we learn studying cells?
Origin of life
Stunning diversity: >200 human cell types in us alone
Estimated 30 trillion human cells make up our bodies
Our own origin and development
Homeostasis
Disease, senescence, and death
Most abundant cells
Red blood cells
Muscle and fat cells make up the majority by mass
Cells vary in appearance and function
Similarities in cells
Chemistry: all composed of the same elements
Same types of molecules
o Amino acids
o Carbohydrates
o Fatty acids
Same kind of catalytic reactions
o Condensation
o Hydrolysis
Biomechanics
o Same type of structural support units, motors, etc
Molecular biology and genomics
o Same storage, flow and instructive use of information
Universal Qualities of Cells
Isolated from environment
Interact with environment
Internal organization
Food processing
Energy
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Storage of information
Read, interpret information
Membranes
Protein sensors
Protein, membranes
Metabolism
ATP
DNA
RNA, proteins
Prokaryotes
Cytoplasm mixed up with DNA
Translation and transcription are coupled
Ribosomes latched on to DNA
Cell wall
Two domains: bacteria and archea
Eukaryotes created when archea swallowed bacterial cell, creating mitochondria
o Asgard archea provide evidence of link between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
o Genes present in archaea and eukaryotes were found
History of Earth
4.6 billion years ago: Earth coalesces from stardust; atmosphere forms
4.1 billion years ago: Life begins; 2 billion year age of prokaryotes
2.7 billion years ago: Molecular oxygen appeared in first oceans from photosynthetic
bacteria
2 billion years ago: molecular oxygen appears in atmosphere caused by great oxygen
explosion; formation of cyanobacteria
1 billion years ago: multicellular life begins
570-650 mya: first complex life forms
o Dickinsonia
570 mya: Cambrian explosion; big bang of evolution
o All modern phyla began to evolve
245 mya: periodic mass extinctions
o Half of all animals and 95% of marine animals went extinct
65 mya: extinction of dinosaurs and half of all animals after collision with giant meteorite
56-33 mya: rise of mammals
20 mya: human ancestors
0.4 mya: humans
10,000 ya: agriculture
5,000 ya: writing
160 ya: industrialization
Eukaryote
Organelles
o Nucleus
o Mitochondria
o Chloroplasts
o Endoplasmic reticulum
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