• Compare and contrast the control systems of the nervous system and endocrine system.
• What is a hormone? What criteria distinguish hormones from other chemical messengers?
• Know the three major classes of hormones and their basic chemical properties. Know how
these are synthesized, stored, and released (see table 16.1 in your text)
• What is a hormone’s half-life? What factors into the half-life, and why does it matter?
• Know the types of endocrine glands (discrete, diffuse, intermediate) and cells (epithelial,
neurosecretory). Know how the latter are controlled.
• You are responsible for understanding the general function and location of the following
hormones discussed in class. For a quick summary of each without digging through the text,
see Appendix K in your book.
Hypothalamus: corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
Posterior pituitary: vasopressin/anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
Anterior pituitary: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Adrenal cortex: cortisol, corticosterone
Islets of Langerhans, pancreas: insulin, glucagon
• Understand the anatomy and function of the anterior and posterior pituitary, and their
relationship to the hypothalamus.
• What types of hormones are secreted by the adrenal gland? Where is it located in the body?
What are the general physiological effects of hormones secreted by the adrenal gland?
• Understand mechanisms of hormonal modulation (negative feedback, synergism,
permissiveness, antagonism) and how these influence endocrine glands and other target
• Describe the HPA axis. Include the influence of neural co