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BIL 360 Midterm: Chapter 12 vocab

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BIL 360
Dubois Adrienne

Chapter 12: Neurons Reading notes: You are not responsible for the reading on single-channel current recording & voltage-clamp recording (323-326), nonspiking neurons, pacemaker potentials, cardiac muscle action potentials (328-330). You may be interested in reading the section on the molecular structure of voltage-dependent ion channels (326-328) for your own edification. Vocabulary: • Integration: central nervous system; interneurons • Neuron • Synapse • Dendrite: input • Neurotransmitter • cell body (soma): integration • axon: conduction • axon hillock • axon initial segment • presynaptic terminals: output • afferent neuron: sensory input; extended networks of neurons and glial cells in an animals body make up its nervous system • efferent neuron: motor output; peripheral nervous system • interneuron • CNS: central nervous system ie brain; oligodendrocytes • PNS: peripheral nervous system; shwann cells • Myelin: formed by shwann cells and oligodendrocytes • glial cell (neuroglia): neuron • Schwann cell: peripheral • Oligodendrocyte: central • Astrocyte: act as intermediaries between capillaries and neurons • microglial cell: mediate immune response • ion: bear a net charge because they have unequal numbers of protons, electrons • electric current: net movement of charges • voltage: separation of positive and negative charges • resistance: limits current flow across membrane • capacitance: ability to store an electrical charge • passive electrical properties • resting membrane potential • depolarization: less negative • hyperpolarization: more negative • Ohm’s law: deltaV=I
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