[CHM 111] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (69 pages long)

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UM
CHM 111
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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CHAPTER 2: ATOMS, MOLECULES, AND IONS
Antoine Lavosier
Father of modern chemistry
Law of Conservation of Mass- mass can neither be created or destroyed
o Weighed a lot of elements
o Carried out reactions
o Weighed products
Showed combustion reactions that involved oxygen and related it to biological
John Dalton
First to prepare a table of relative masses
At this point, people did not understand what was happening with relative compounds
Found that when he measured reactions and their products, there must some individual
weights for these individual elements
o By having twice the amount of oxygen, compound I could be O and compound II
O2
There are individual building blocks
John Gay-Lussac and Amedeo Avogadro
Two molecules of H and 1 molecule of O will form H20
Interpreted volumes as individual
Volume remains same before and after reaction
Kenzary
Idea of atoms
Early View of Atomic Structure
J.J. Thompson’s Plum Pudding Model
o Electrons embedded in cloud of positive charge
o Knew atoms were neutral and electrons were negative
Earnest Rutherford
o Tried proving Plum Pudding Model right
o Shot alpha particles at an atom
o Thought particles would pass in between the electrons
o The vast majority went through, but every now and then one of the particles would
bounce back
o This meant the plum pudding was incorrect because there must be something dense
that would have caused them to bounce back (eventually known as the nucleus)
Modern View of Atomic Structure
Chemistry is the interest of defining electrons
Thompson determined the charge-to-mass ratio (-1.76 X 10^8 C/g)
Nucleus contains protons
Neutrons have the same mass as protons
Electrons are basically these fast moving particles that can circumvent the nucleus because
of difference in mass
Nucleus contains most of the atom’s mass
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o Very dense
Number of protons defines the element
Number of electrons must equal the number of protons, but not neutrons (isotopes)
Mass number- total of protons and neutrons (written at top)
Molecules and Ions
Energy is the currency of chemistry
Why do atoms bond together?
o They are more stable bonded together than they are as individual atoms
Ways to do this
o Have the electron configuration closest to that of a noble gas
Too many electrons- give some away
Na+
CL-
o Form ionic bonds (NaCl)- sodium gives extra one to chlorine
o Share electrons (covalent bond)
Molecules are a collection of atoms held together by covalent bonds
o Ex: C2H6O
How would you write it?
Valence- number of bonds formed by each element
o Ex: C- four bonds (tretravalent)
You can also use space-filling models to show relative size of atoms
Introduction to the Periodic Table
o Characterizes elements into groups that are very similar (same electronic configuration)
o Adding electrons across the rows
o Vast majority of table is made up of metals
o Metals tend to form cations
o Conduct electricity and heat
o Ductile and malleable
o To the right of dark black line are nonmetals
o Tend to form covalent bonds
o Poor conductors
o Opposite of metals
Naming Compounds
o Systematic naming
o Binary Ionic Compounds: contain cation and anion
o Cation is always named first (NaCl)
o Monoatomic cation is named from the element
o Monoatomic takes first part of name and adds ide
o KI- Potassium Iodide (K+ and I-)
o CaS- Calcium Sulfide (Ca2+ and S2-)
o Li3N- Lithium Nitride (Li+ and N3-)
o MgO- Magnesium Oxide (Mg2+ and O2-)
o Binary Compounds that can form more than one charge (Fe2+ and Fe3+)
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