[COS 211] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 43 pages long Study Guide!

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COS 211
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1: Introduction to Public Speaking
1. Benefits of public speaking
a. Skills are critical for intellectual development, career trajectory, civic engagement
b. Personal
i. Can help us to fulfill essential roles in weddings, funerals, etc.
ii. Builds self-confidence
c. Professional
i. 70% need some form of public speaking
ii. Effective speaking skills make you more attractive to employers
d. Public
i. Helps you listen to and evaluate other speeches
2. Models of communication
a. Linear model of communication
i. Sender: person who is speaking
ii. Channel: apparatus for carrying the message
iii. Receiver: person who picks up the message
iv. Communication is seen as a one-way process of transmitting a message
from person to another
b. Transaction model of communication
i. Communication is an ongoing, circular process
ii. We are constantly affected by those we communicate with
iii. Several processes
1. Encoding and decoding processes
2. Communicator
3. Message
4. Channel
5. Noise
3. Elements of the communication process
a. Encoding and decoding
i. Encoding: the process of taking an idea or mental image, associating that
image words, speaking those words in order to convey a message
ii. Decoding: reverse process of listen to words, thinking about them, and
turning those words into mental images
b. Communicator
i. Communicator: all the people in the interaction or speech setting
c. Message
i. Those verbal and nonverbal behaviors, enacted by communicators, that are
interpreted with meaning by others
d. Channel
i. The means through which the message travels
1. Our senses when communicating in person
2. A computer
3. Phone
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4. TV
e. Noise
i. Anything that interferes with message transmission or reception
ii. Physiological noises: bodily processes and states
iii. Psychological noise: mental states or emotional states that impedes
message transmission or reception
iv. Physical noise: actual sound level in the room
v. Cultural noise: message interference that results from differences in
people’s worldview
f. Worldview
i. Make encoding and decoding more difficult
ii. Worldview: the overall framework through which an individual sees,
thinks about, and interprets the world and interacts with it
iii. Five components:
1. Epistemology: the way that we acquire knowledge and what counts
as knowledge
a. Governs audience members’ preferred learning styles and
who or what they consider to be credible sources
2. Ontology: our belief system, how we see the nature of reality, or
what we see as true or false
a. Speech writers cannot assume that the audience has the
same beliefs that they do
3. Axiology: our value system
a. Impacts speaker’s credibility and effectiveness in
persuasion
4. Cosmology: signifies the way that we see our relationship to the
universe and to other people
a. Dictates our view of power relationships and may involve
religious beliefs
b. Controversial speech topics are related to cosmology as we
must consider our responsibilities to other human beings
and our ability to influence them
c. Also governs who is allowed to speak, the order of
speakers on schedule, the amount of time a speaker has to
speak, the seating arrangement on the dais, who gets front
row seats
5. Praxeology: our preferred method of completing everyday tasks
and our approach to solving problems
a. Impacts when we start our outlines, our delivery style,
arrangement of main points, choice of slideware
iv. Concrete Word: a word that describes a tangible object that can perceived
by the senses
1. Different people see concrete objects differently
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