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Notes Test 3 4.2.13.docx

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University of Miami
GEG 120
Peter Muller

MASS MOVEMENTS -Movement of earth CREEP MOVEMENTS -Mostly affects soil (freeze-thaw/wet-dry sequences) overburden material, transitional mainly happens in respect to true soil; if the temps are cold enough it is a freeze thaw FLOW MOVEMENTS I -Water plays a key role- strong impact on landscape -mud flows -earth flows -Mudflows -Stream of fluid, lubricated mud (porridge-like mass) -Triggered by heavy rainfall on dry area (quickly dries after precipitation) -Water content affects flow and proportion of rock debris FLOW MOVEMENTS II -Earth Flows -Section of steep hillside lubricated until it flows (regolith) -Slumping: goes down and slides down one section at a time SLIDE MOVEMENTS I -Involve higher-angled steeper slopes -Much faster than flow movements -Collapse that needs no lubrication -Increased weight through saturation -Earth tremors strong enough to dislodge materials -River cutting into valley side over steepens slope -Human causes: building roads, blasting away hillsides -Landslides (everything goes: overburden and bedrock) -Rockslides (bedrock on denuded slopes, esp. on mountains) surface where there is nothing but bedrock FALL MOVEMENTS -Fastest of all (free fall) -Rocks and boulder accumulation at base of slope>> including talus cone) WATER IN THE LITHOSPHERE -Completing the hydrologic cycle WATER AT THE SURFACE -Raindrops reaching the surface -Interception by vegetation -Absorption (most of the surface is permeable) -Infiltration (underground) Penetration of water into surface openings -Depends on characteristics of: 1. Soil 2. Precipitation 3. Slope 4. Plant cover . Moisture already in ground -Runoff (overland flow) -Ground saturation >> surface detention >> hollows soon given away (puddles) -Water flows across the surface, follows topography, and soon reach the nearest stream channel of a river system WATER FLOW IN RIVERS -Stream Channels -Gradient: slope of channel (relief of a stream segment) -Discharge: volume of water passing a point over time -Velocity: speed of water flow, which varies in channel (moves the fastest in the middle just below the surface) WATER BELOW THE SURFACE -Groundwater -Ca. 25 % of Earth’s fresh water lockes inside the lithosphere -Originated through infiltration and stored in two zones -Zone of Aeration (Vadose Zone) -Upper zone of groundwater -Usually unsaturated except during heavy rainfall -Zone of Saturation (Phreatic Zone) -Lower zone of groundwater -Permanently saturated -Upper surface marked by the water table (that can rise and fall seasonally) SOIL IN MOSTURE IN THE ZONE OF AERATION Soil Moisture defined as rainwater that has infiltrated the soil -Further downward movement induced by gravity (percolation) -Water may also move upward between soil pores (via capillary action {like liquid in a straw}) may rise up by itself GROUNDWATER IN THE ZONE OF SATURATION -Upper boundary is the water table, which follows the outline of the land surface -Rock layers below are classifies by their water-holding properties -Aquifers (porous-permeable-can be saturated)—SPONGE -Aquicludes (interlocked particles – impermeable – resist groundwater) –Plastic -Unconfined Aquifer (ob
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