[GSC 111] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 92 pages long Study Guide!

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GSC 111
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Diversity of Life
1. Properties of life
a. Order
b. Growth and development
i. These two are also properties of minerals
c. Energy utilization
d. Response to environment
i. Takes in cues from the environment
e. Evolutationary adaptation
f. Self-replication
g. Homeostasis (self-regulation)
h. These last two are the ones that distinguish life from stuff like viruses
2. Species= particular kind of organism
a. Names are how we characterize diversity of life
b. Comes from latin word meaning kind or appearance
c. Defining can be a challenge
i. Biological species concepts emphasize reproductive isolation (if they can
interbreed, they are the same species)
1. Take into account morphology, biochemistry, behavior, genetics
d. The fossil record does not have access to the above information
i. Focuses on the morphology
e. Global biodiversity
i. Most of life is insects, then animals, plants, fungi, protozoa, algae, bacteria
and viruses as of 1992
1. Problem with this information is that it is based on the organisms
that we can see. So we are underestimating the number of bacteria
and viruses
ii. 2 million different species as of 2009
iii. Estimated that there might be 12 million species in the planet
1. A lot that we know very little about
3. Taxonomy- the discovery, description, and classification of different species
a. Started by Carolus von Linnaeus
b. Developed the binomial nomenclature naming system
i. Genus and species name
c. Hierarchical classification system
i. Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
d. Part of scientific practice known as systematics, which studies the evolutionary
relationships among organisms
i. Goals is to determine the evolutionary history and relationships of
organisms (phylogeny)
ii. Revise taxonomic classifications to reflect phylogeny
4. Terms
a. Monophyletic group (clades)- contains an ancestor and all of its descendants
i. How we try to do it usually
b. Paraphyletic group- does not include all the descendants of an ancestor
i. Usually used when u can’t describe something using a clade
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ii. Seem to share a common origin
iii. Close to each other on a visual of a phylogeny
c. Polyphyletic group
i. Does not include the most recent common ancestor
ii. What to avoid when doing classifications
d. Pictures on the slide show on Blackboard
5. How do we classify organisms
a. Look at morphology
i. Shared anatomical structures
ii. Disadvantages
1. Time consuming
2. Labor intensive
3. Could be inaccurate
a. Especially for microbes
b. Molecules
i. Can be more meaningful for microbes
ii. DNA
1. Most studies use DNA
2. More stable
3. Able analyze sequence of A, T, C, G
iii. RNA
iv. Proteins
v. Can sequence an entire genome
1. Human genome took 13 years
2. Can also focus on short intervals that are more relevant to
taxonomy/classification
3. Most widely used is ribosomal gene sequence
a. Ribosomes make protein
6. Revisions to the tree of life
a. Linnaeus
i. Only worried about whether things were vegetables or animals
ii. Did not worry about microbes cuz he couldn’t see them
b. Then added protists to describe anything that was not a vegetable or animal
c. Now there are three domains
7. The Tree of life
a. Domains
i. Archaea
ii. Eurkarya
iii. Bacteria
iv. Defined using genetic sequence of ribosome
Bacteria
Archaea
Eukarya
Nuclear envelope
X
Membrane-enclosed
organelles
X
8. Archaea- extremophiles
a. Live in extreme environments
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