[JMM 108] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (46 pages long)

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JMM 108
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Basic Grammar Rules
What is a sentence
o A set of words conveying a statement, question, exclamation, or command.
o Contains a main clause, a subject, and predicate
o Conveys a complete thought
o Syntax: deals with sentence strucutre
Parts of a sentence
o Nouns
o Verbs
o Adjectives
o Adverbs
o Prepositions
o Pronouns
o Conjunctions
o Interjection
o Article
Four kinds of sentences
o Simple
Has a subject, verb, noun
Independent clause
o Complex
Add a dependent clause to a simple sentence
o Compound
Two independent clauses joined by a conjunction and a comma
o Compound-complex
Has two independent clauses and a dependent clause
Basic Mistakes
o Agreement
Singular subject has to have a singular verb
“the clock strikes on the hour”
o Plural
Mother-in-law becomes mothers-in-law
o Apostrophe uses
Use if for possession
o There, their, they’re
o Which and that
Which used for nonessential phrases
That used for essential phrases
o Who and whom
Used in the same way as which and that but for people
If you can reconstruct the sentence or answer a question with an object
pronoun, you can use whom
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If you can answer with him, use whom; if you can answer with he,
use who
Whom are you mad at?
Who is going to the party?
You’ll be shocked when I tell you who called me.
Whom should I ask to the dance?
The doctor who you recommended is not available
o Comma splices
o Fewer/less
Anything that you can count, use fewer
There are fewer people than last year.
There is less sand on the beach.
There are fewer grains of sand.
The glass has less water.
Exceptions are time, distance, money, and weight
You can use less than or fewer than
o Much vs. Many
Much is for things you can’t count
Many is for things you can count
o More than/over
More than when using a quantity
o Dangling participle
I smelled bacon entering the kitchen
You can say I smelled bacon while I entered the kitchen
While running from the dog, my keys fell out of my pocket
My keys fell out of my pocket as I as running from dog.
Style: set of conventions and assumptions underlying the writing
o Generally accepted usage for a particular medium
o AP Style
o Chicago Style
Accuracy
o Fact check before publication
o Research
Go through many sources before we write something
o use official sources
limitation is that we are not talking to people that are directly affected
o important to be accurate because this is the only way for readers to be informed
on this subject
clarity
o communicating your ideas clearly
o put yourself in the position of readers and write somebody who is not educated on
this specific topic
o avoid jargon
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