MSC 230 Final: MB Final

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Marine Science
MSC 230
Glynn Peter

MB FINAL 13:51 Viktor Hensen Kiel School Earned doctorate in Kiel for thesis on epilepsy and urinary secretions Defined word plankton as the blood of the sea Interpreted marine energy transfer after agricultural studies, developing quantitative methods for Kiel Commission Driven by “what regulates fishery catches?” Argued that diatoms were not involved in energy transfer to fish as they were useless silica Believed plankton were uniformly distributed and the basis for oceanic productivity Many ‘marine biologists’ in history did not start out as such Chemosynthesis vs photosynthesis Chemosynthesis – chemical reactions – at sea floor hydrothermal vents Bacteria absorb hydrogen sulfide and CO2 from vent water and oxygen from seawater Bacteria use energy released by oxidizing sulfur to make organic molecules Bacteria grow and reproduce, and are eaten or hosted as internal symbionts by other animals Photosynthesis – solar radiation – decreases with depth Grow and reproduce and are eaten or hosted as internal symbionts by animals Oxygen is most efficient of all elements to receive electrons from reduced compounds LUCA – last universal common ancestor DNA or RNA Cell wall Amino acids -> proteins Reduced CO2, oxidized H2 Chemiosmosis – energy from H+ movement across membrane – ATP Viruses Lytic cycle – lysis – break cell wall and release Remove 20-40% of prokaryote populations daily Lysogenic cycle – reproduce in host cell Virus can reside in host cells for multiple generations Integrate viral genome in host Infect bacteria, eukaryotes inducing cell lysis Marine megavirus – infect algae and zooplankton Bioinformatics 99% unculturable uses PCR Cyanobacteria Photosynthetic prokaryotes Primarily in upper, sunlit surface waters Reproduce by binary traverse fission in a single plane and lack sheaths Can propel themselves through seawater in absence of any external organelle Archea Prokaryotic, smaller than bacteria Unique cell walls No sugar amino acid complex Extremophiles Halophiles Thermophiles Methanogens Flavobacter has enhanced growth in light compared to darkness Proterorhodopsin is present in bacteria that has ATP production in sunlight from H flow Microbial Loop Using dissolved organic carbon supports bacteria, viruses, small protozoans Somehow get linked into the main food chain Only supported since 1980 Multicellular Marine Plants Seaweeds lack true leaves, stem, and roots Generally green or red lineage; alteration of generations Seaweed structures are: Thallus Blad Pneumatocysts Stipe Holdfast Sponges Invertebrates Assymetric, sessile animal Asconoid – simplest Syconoid – more folding Leuconoid – most folding allowing for higher surface areas Lack tissues but have specialized exterioir, interioir cells Suspension feeders by interior choanocyte cells Pinacocyte is exterior Archaeocyte – similar to stem cells Pre cells line ostia Spicules are calcium carbonate or siliceous or protein Cnidarian Radial symmetry: jellyfish, hydroids, corals, and sea anemones Having stinging cells or cnidocytes for capturing prey and protection Exhibit 2 different body plans in their life cycle and 3 cells layers Medusa Polyp Scyphozoans – syphon water Types Hydrozoans – benthic stage predominates Scyphozoans – jellyfish and box jelly Exist both in polyp and medusa stage, with predominant being medusa Better swimmers than hydrozoan Have photreceptors and may avoid bright sunlight Zooxanthellae in many jellyfish Anthozoans Sea anemones, corals Benthis, sessile or sedentary Exhibit only poly stage Larger, heavier and more complex than hydrozoans Ctenophores Comb jellies Planktonic animals that closely resemble jellyfish Transparent, exhibit radial symmetry but lack stinging cells 8 rows of ctenes that they use for locomotion weak swimmers statocyst help them maintain balance Flatworms Flattened bodies, bilateral symmetry Head and posterior region Can be free living or parasitic Tubellarians – free living Most are carnivorous but some feed on detritus Detect prey using chemoreceptors Voracious predators Gastropods Stomach foot Exhibit tremendous diversity, found in a variety of environments Unshelled or univalve shell Coiled or uncoiled – torion External fertilization Separate sexes Trochophore to veliger Few weeks planktonic then competent to settle Bivalves No head or radula Laterally compressed Shell halves attached dorsally at hinge Inhalant and exhalent openings Siphons – facilitate filter feeding while buried An
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